By Carter B. Horsley
This evening auction of Post-War and Contemporary
Art at Christie's November 8, 2005 is highlighted by a spectacular
group of Abstract Expressionist paintings that includes some extraordinary
Mark Rothko (1903-1970)(see The
City Review article on a major Rothko exhibition) is presented
by four works. Franz Kline (1910-1962) by two works. Willem de
Kooning (1904-1997)(see The City Review article
on a major de Kooning exhibition) by 9 works.
The most outstanding Rothko is Lot 34, "Homage
to Matisse," a classic, 105 5/8-by-51-inch oil on canvas
that is dated 1953. It is one of several works in the auction
consigned by the collection of Edward R. Broida, a real estate
developer in Los Angeles who recently gave many works to the Museum
of Modern Art. It has an "estimate on request" and is
expected to go for more than $15 million. It sold for $22,416,000
including the buyer's premium as do all results mentioned in this
article. The price was a world auction record for the artist and
a world auction record for a post-war work.
The catalogue entry for this lot notes that
Rothko rarely titled his works once he had arrived at his mature
style by 1949 and that this is a rare exception:
"It was painted in 1954, the year of the
great French painter's death and it is equally rare in that it
is a public declaration by Rothko of the debt he owed to another,
and in particular, European artist. Like many artists of the New
York School Rothko was often wary of allowing his work to be seen
as in anyway indebted to the then all-powerful French tradition
in painting. Wishing to be seen as an indepedent artist and originator
in his own right, Rothko was also ideologically opposed to the
so-called 'School of Paris' for what he saw as its lack of moral
and political conscience in an age of profound crisis. ....More
than any other single artist, it was Matisse's example that had
informed much of the direction as well as the ultimate liberation
of Rothko's art between 1930 and 1949. In the 1920s Rothko had
enrolled himself in the class of Max Weber a former pupil of Matisse's
short-lived art school in Paris and in the 1930s Rothko shared
a close friendship and working relationship with Milton Avery
who, responding to Matisse's example, had inspired Rothko with
his landscapes and female figures flattened into lyrical expanses
of opaque color. Essentially though it was Matisse's example and
in particular, paintings like his Red Studio of 1911 that
had given Rothko the courage to pursue his great breakthrough
of 1949 when the represential forms, objects and symbols of his
art finally disappeared and dissolved into his now familiar rectangles
of pure non-objective color. The Red Studio was acquired
by New York's Museum of Modern Art in the late 1940s and was first
permanently installed in the museum in 1949. As Rothko told Dore
Ashton, soon after the painting went on show he would repeatedly
'spend hours and hours' sitting in front [of] it. 'When you looked
at that painting,' he said 'you became color, you became toatlly
saturated with it, as if it were music.'....Both Rothko and Matisse
were responding to the essentially Symbolist idea that there is
a direct and ultimately transcendent correspondence between color,
sound, sensation, eeling and memory."
The auction was extremely successful with
a sales total of $157,441,600. The pre-sale estimates were $101.2
million to $145.6 million. After the auction, auctioneer Christopher
Burge said that the sale total was the highest ever for a post-war
art auction and described the results as "absolutely extraordinary."
He said that 82 percent of the buyers were American and 37 lots
sold for over $1 million and 18 records were set. More than 70
percent of the offered lots sold above their high estimates.
Action in the crowded auction room was hectic
and about 63 percent of the successful bidders were in the room,
in sharp contrast to the high percentage of telephone bidders
in recent years.
Lot 48, "Blue Over Red,"
is a strong Rothko oil on canvas that measures 64 1/2 by 35 1/4
inches. Executed in 1953, it is property from the collection of
Selma and Israel Rosen. It has an estimate of $4,500,000 to $6,500,000.
It sold for $5,616,000.
Lot 24 is an untitled oil on
paper mounted on canvas by Rothko that measures 26 by 19 1/2 inches.
Executed in 1960, it has a modest estimate of $1,000,000 to $1,500,000.
It sold for $2,536,000, setting a world auction record for
the artist for a work on paper. It is property from the collection
of Lee V. Eastman, an entertainment lawyer who died in 1991.
The catalogue entry for this
lot makes note of the fact that Rothko "learned from and
relied on the example of his forebears among them James Abbot
McNeill Whistler, William Turner, Paul Cézanne and most
importantly Fra Angelico." The latter artist is the subject
of a retrospective exhibition this fall at the Metropolitan Museum
"The success of Rothko's
paintings is directly related to his intense study and mastery
of light," the entry continued. "He imbued his paintings
with a preternatural luminosity. In this pursuit, he was particularly
influenced by Fra Angelico whose frescoes he often admired on
his sojourns to Italy. 'When Fra Angelico painted his scenes of
Edenic beauty, he was true to the Thomist vision of beauty as
'that in which the eye delights,' but he acknowledged the Thomist
principle that painting is knowledge as 'it satisfies our desire
to understand and know.' For the Thomists, the world and its beauties
could be depicted only as effects for which there could be only
one cause. God would be the source of all visual pleasure, and
the light that would grace the world of nature would always flow
from Him. Therefore, in Fra Angelico's exemplary panels, the light
is evenly distributed, not modified.'[quotation from Dore Ashton's
book About Rothko, New York, 1983, p. 148]...Untitled
shares this unified luminosity. It does not though speak of God's
divivity but instead endeavors to illuminate the secular mystery
of man's psyche."
Another Rothko from the Eastman
collection is Lot 28, which is also untitled. An oil on paper
mounted on canvas, it measures 24 by 18 1/2 inches and was painted
in 1959. It has a somber palette of crimson and blacks. It has
an estimate of $1,000,000 to $1,200,000. It sold for $1,472,000.
Another work from the Eastman
collection is Lot 22, "Elegy to the Spanish Republic #122,"
an oil, charcoal and graphite on canvas by Robert Motherwell (1915-1991).
It measures 55 3/4 by 76 inches and was painted in 1972. It has
a modest estimate of $1,200,000 to $1,800,000. It sold for
"Based on Motherwell's
evocation of the Spanish Civil War, which occurred a decade earlier
to his first Elegy in 1949, he has said that the Elegies
were visual equivalents of the poetic lament for the dead,"
the catalogue entry for this note observed, adding that "The
somber look and tone of the paintings universalize the war's massacres
and injustices enacted by man, all the while avoiding the proselytizing
tone of political painting. Sinec the 1950s, Motherwell had produced
fresh variations of the Elegies, all the while, remaining
faithful to its primary structure. Elegy to the Spanish Republic,
No. 122, exemplifies the later Elegies, which are characterized
by a dazzling combination of austerity and elegance, and most
notably, the inclusion of other colors such [as] the ochre. It
has been well documented that the source of the Elegies
was an illustration Motherwell made to accompany a poem by Harold
Rosenberg, A Bird for Every Bird, for the second issue
of the journal possibilities in 1949....he has alluded
to the fact that each one of his Elegies begins as an automatic
drawing, and certain shapes are then blocked to create the signature
armature of the vertical bars and ovals...."
Another major work by from the Broida collection
and certainly the finest work in this auction is Lot 38, "Painting
in Black and White and Color (Washington Wall)," by Franz
A monumental oil on canvas, it measures 43
1/8 by 175 inches and was painted in 1959. It has a very conservative
estimate of $2,500,000 to $4,000,000 as it is perhaps the most
spectacular, powerful and dramatic Abstract Expressionist painting
and one that should elevate Kline's status significantly. It
sold for $5,448,000.
The catalogue provides the following commentary:
"By the late mid-1950s, Kline had refined
his black and white paintings and arrived at new innovations.
In 1956, he artist introduced color to his black and white abstractions,
selectively and with great bravado. The second inovation included
two large mural-like paintings in 1959, one being Orange and
Black Wall and the other, Washington Wall. The latter
has been described in the literature as a cinemascope. There is
an element of theatricality built into this work. The work can
been in stages which includes the introduction, crescendo and
the denouement of the image. What is also notable about this painting
is the combination of opposite directional pulls to the extreme
left and right sides, which is the basis for its sheer vitality.
The addition of color, usually bright and unmodulated, to his
abstractions occurred during a pivotal moment in Kline's career.
He changed dealers and in 1956, began showing works at [the] Sidney
Janis Gallery, which brought him higher visibility and greater
acclaim. ....While the critics at that time denounced it as a
risky move to introduce color, Kline took on the challenge of
painting with color to produce the same extraordinary combination
of dynamism and gravitas, which previously only the black and
white abstractions were thought to possess. He used color as the
means to add visual complexity to the structure of the composition.
Washington Wall consists of numerous vectors and strong
diagonals, which give the appearance of tautness and vitality....Every
mark appears spontaneously rendered but the overall image is a
vey complex one, where brushstrokes are constructed in an architectural
fashion.....The two strong diagonal lines that jut out from the
right side of the picture to the very end on the other side contain
incredible velocity, interspersed among the diagonals are triangular
white areas that contribute to the feeling of aceleration. While
the composition is asymmetrical, proportionally it is a balanced
picture because the white area of the left section has great tonal
value and acts as the passive foil to the active brushwork. Kline
often used an edge or the side of the canvas to lay down the groundwork
for the image, rooting it and from there, bursts forth explosions
Lot 26 is a superb, large, untitled oil on
canvas by Franz Kline that measures 79 1/8 by 59 1/8 inches. Executed
in 1960, it is property from the collection of Lee V. Eastman
who acquired it from the artist. It has a modest estimate of $2,500,000
to $3,500,000. It sold for $1,808,000.
"When one confronts a black and white
painting by Kline, one is nearly overcome by the massive scale
and raw power of the brushstrokes. While Kline took pains to create
preparatory sketches for his black and white paintings, the end
result appears as if the image had been spontaneously sprung forth
from the artist's brush, already fully formed into exitence. While
Rothko and Newman's sublime paintings act as monochromatic fields
that enfold the viewer, Kline's works on the other hand, dominate
the vision of the beholder with fierce energy and vertiginous
scaffoldings of substantive paint....In spite of their radically
simplified composition and stark appearance, Kline's paintings
contain subject matter. Kline asserted that his paintings usually
allude to some kind of a personage or structure. Like de Kooning's
it can be said Kline's approach to abstraction is rooted in concrete
experience. Oftentimes one seems a semblance of a rectangle, suggesting
a door or passageway; other times the structure resembles bridges
and highways. There is another reference to the urban architecture
skyscrapers, whose sharp angles jut up to the sky. In this particular
work, a rectangular shape appears to be suspended in the air,
a recurring motif that originated in earilier paintings such as
Leda and Wotan, both of 1950. There is a black horizontal
band on the bottom edge as to denote earth and its gravitational
pull. The rectangular shape floating or hurtling above could also
represent a person, more specifically, a dancer coiled in a pose
in mid-air. A lover of the theater and dance, Kline painted an
abstract evocation of the dancer Nijinksy in 1950. The compact
shape alludes to the body - a being that is dense, alive and yet
floating above, defying gravity in this instant moment. A sense
of immediacy is aided by the tight cropping of the black forms,
especially in the upper right corner. But these aspects are simply
points of inspiration, as these paintings in the end do not reference
anything representional. Unititled may possess the energy
and tension of a dancer, but it does not depict a dancer.....Some
critics have incorrectly assumed that Kline was influenced by
Asian calligraphy because of the flourishes of paint and economy
of expression. But he had denied such an influence. This is proven
by the strong presence of white ...[in] his paintings, which is
equal to that of the black. They work in concert with each other,
providing contrast and support. Nevertheless, there is a strong
ideographic element in his work, which was a prevalent theme in
other Abstract Expresionists' paintings by such artists such as
Adolph Gottlieb and Mark Tobey....."
Of the many de Koonings in
the auction, two abstractions stand out, Lots 17 and 25.
Lot 17 is an untitled oil and
charcoal on two sheets of card mounted on panel that measures
22 by 14 1/2 inches. Executed in 1957, it has a modest estimate
of $700,000 to $900,000. It is another property from the collection
of Lee V. Eastman who acquired it from the artist. It sold
"This Untitled work,"
the catalogue observed, "...belongs to a celebrated body
of paintings where the artist was at his most abstract. This austere
and highly compact picture emanates a severe elegance. By tightly
focusing his picture to only broad brushstrokes painted in sharp
vectors or dashed across the surface in a vehement fashion, de
Kooning made oil paint the subject matter. The perfomative aspect
of Abstract Expressionism and its insistence on the participation
of the spectator make for a thrilling experience when viewing
a painting such as Untitled. It has been simplified into
pure abstrauction, but it does not feel at all like a reduction
in its execution. With its rapid brushstrokes that dazzle the
eye and a highly pesonalized palette of burnt oranges, brilliant
blues, marigold yellows, warm reds, sensual pinks along with black
and white, abstraction never looked so alluring....Untitled
consists of two pieces of painted collage; the act of collage
held generative powers for the artist. Thomas Hess explains de
Kooning's habit of tearing drawings as something vitally integal
to the artist's working method. 'Fundamentally, tearing drawings
was a means of pictorial orientation. It is a practice in which
art refers most of all to art - the shapes becoming the subject
of another shape and then of still another shape in an increasingly
complicated fugue of interlocking elements. But beneath this intense
concentration on the pictorial, one senses the breath and pulse
of the artist's passion.' On his studio walls, de Kooning had
tacked up small oil on paper pieces as a repository of images
to use as collage elements for his paintings or to jumpstart a
new picture. Around this time, de Kooning created small 8 by 7
inch paintings using collage elements as the means of inventing
new compositions. With collage's rich potential, de Kooning achieved
numerous pictorial possiblities. It also gave him a sense of freedom
because with the open-ended abstract shapes, collage did not have
to have a specific spatial orientation and did not involve narrative
like surrealist collages. His process is very similar to cubist
collage in their shaped planes of color either built up or dismantled,
but de Kooning's personalized painted gesture seems to make it
into a more subjective endeavor. In Untitled, de Kooning
joined the two separate collage elements so the edges unite to
form a diagonal line.....There is a slight sense of depth where
the left side of the painting, which includes an expanse of white,
pulls forward while the cool blue of the right side recedes."
Also from the Eastman collection
is Lot 25, "Untitled #10," which is also the same dimensions
as Lot 17 but it is in a horizontal format rather vertical. It
also dates to about the same period as Lot 17 and also has a very
modest estimate of $700,000 to $900,000. It sold for $1,136,000.
"What is truly remarkable
about this work is how much of de Kooning's creative process is
plainly visible," the catalogue entry noted, adding that
"It is a veritable record of his pictorial decisions regarding
the structure, composition, feel and tone of the resulting picture.
There is an incredible amount of active drawing underneath the
paint. The underdrawing's sweeping lines, rubbed cancellations,
and shifting planes attest to de Kooning's preference for a dialtctical
approach, of constantly pitting one state of being with its opposite.
The drawing also acts as a counterbalance to the seemingly spontaneous
and improvised appearance of the bainted brushstrokes. A special
kind of translucency is achieved by the various layers of charcoal
and paint, and results in a shimmering depth of surface."
Yet another Eastman de Kooning is Lot 15, a
large untitled oil on canvas from 1977. It measures 88 by 76 1/2
inches and has an estimate of $4,000,000 to $6,000,000. It
sold for $10,656,000. The catalogue includes an interesting
quotation from de Kooning: "Miles Davis bends the notes.
He doesn't play them, he bends them. I bend the paint."
The catalogue observes that "the group
of paintings executed in 1977 represent the pinnacle of achievement
in de Kooning's late works. They are magisterial, corporeal and
filled with virtuoso effects. For the artist who has explored
the dialectical relationship between figuration and abstraction
to their greatest potential, the series from 1977 is a major hallmark.
The works are a breathtaking summation of his lifelong discourse
on the nature of painting." The entry also notes that in
this work de Kooning has not totally abandoned "figuration"
and has left 'tatanlizing clues to flesh and body images throughout
Unittled as it is his nature not to exclude the concrete
and the real. In the lower left corner of the painting, for example,
located is a woman's red high-heeled shoe. Tinges of flesh tones
suggesting the body are highlighted on the white passages. A hand
outlined in black floats in the lower section of the painting."
Bill Viola (b. 1951) is the
Rembrandt of video and Lot 1 is a color video triptych on three
LCD panels that is number one of an edition of five. Overall,
it measures 16 1/4 by 75 by 2 inches and was created in 2001.
In this work, three women maintain "an intensive locked gaze
with the camera as they undergo a succession of strong emotional
states," the catalogue notes, adding that the artist is "one
of the few contemporary artists to broach the murky territory
of the spiritual with purpose and artistic success." "A
practicing Zen Buddhist, Viola draws on his own quest for self-knowledge
and seeks to make art that 'cultivates knowledge for how to be
in the world, for going through life.' The lot has an estimate
of $120,000 to $180,000. It sold for $374,400, breaking the
previous record of $72,865 set at Christie's in London June 27,
Lot 5 is a unique taxidermied
animals work by Maurizio Cattelan (b. 1960). It is entitled "The
First, They Said, Should Be Sweet Like Love; The Second Bitter,
Like Life; And The Third Soft, Like Death." The work was
created in 1998 and is 65 inches tall. It has an estimate of $700,000
to $1,000,000. It sold for $844,800. The catalogue notes
that this work is related to two previous Cattelan works that
stacked animals, the first of which was inspired by a Brothers
Grimm fairytale The Musicians of Bremen, which was "embedded
with a moral tale that encouraged cooperation as a means of attaining
a Utopian state."
Lot 30 is a major early work by Roy Lichtenstein
(1923-1997) entitled "In The Car." An oil, magna, and
graphite on canvas, it measures 30 by 40 1/8 inches and has an
"estimate on request." It has been consigned by the
artist's son, Mitchell. The catalogue entry for this 1963 work
contains a superb six-page essay by noted art historian Robert
Rosenblum in which he recalls what "might have been the greatest
visual trauma of my gallery-going life, Roy Lichtenstein's three-week
long debut at Castelli's, from February 10 to March 3, 1962":
"I was so startled by this full-scale
offense to the decorum of domestically-scaled gallery walls that
I might even have gasped out loud. Coiuld I possibly be looking
at a painting of an ad for the latest model in American washing
machines or supermarket turkeys? And perhaps even more alarming,
was I really seeing oil-on-canvas paintings of blown-up comic
strip panels that celebrated the mechanized macho violence of
a fighter plane bombed to oblivion or the soap-operatic moments
of an all-American girl's bliss, whether her first kiss or the
excitement promised in a thought balloon that, with a nervous
stammer read: 'It's...not an engagement ring. Is It?'...there
was the simultaneous shock of a visual language that looked unspeakably
crude, especially by contrast with the nuanced colors and handmade
brushstrokes familar to the ab ex world and even, one began to
realize, to Johns's flags, which had at first looked like impersonal
replicas but then began to look lovingly crafted. Expousing the
low-budget techniques of lowly commerical artists, Licthenstein's
paintings hurt the eye with their insistence on only the three
primary colors, a trio that, with Mondrian, had once evoked abstract
essences, but that now proclaimed the shrill chromatic shorthand
of comic books and mail-order catalogues.Then there were the black
contours, again conjuring the rockbotom visual economy of commercial
imagery, wilfully insensitive lines that mocked highfalutin traditions
of an artist's personal touch. And adding insult to injury, there
were the Ben-Day dots which, mirroring their source in cheap,
belt-line image reproduction, conveyed with mechanized perfection
the textures, the lights and shadows that high-minded artists
had slaved to achieve. And beyond this, there was the threat to
old-fashioned ideas of originality. Weren't these paintings imply
unedited copies of existing images? Court this be art? ....He
not only upset everybody by the gross images with which he chose
to pollute art's sanctuaries, but by the equally gross visual
vocabulary with which he depicted these commonplaces of American
life. But very quickly, my training as an academic art historican
gave me a handle on his seemingly unprecedented challenge to aesthetic
proprieity. As the dust settled, many examples poppled up to supply
a respectable genelogical table, among them, Courbet's proletariat
subject matter; Seurat's regimented dots and primary hues; Beardsley's
poster-flat, black-and-white graphics; Picasso's Cubist embrace
of cafe signs and billboards. This, in turn, not only helped to
make Lichtenstein's art look backwards as well as forwards, but
helped to absorb the initial shock of what at first lookled ugly,
permitting us to look more carefully at how ugliness could become
a new kind of beauty. So it was that within a year, by the time
of Lichtenstein's second show at Castelli's, from September 29
to October 2, 1963, things began to look very different....slowly,
Lichtenstein's unique genius became visible. Here was an artist
who, working with what was always considered to be the crudest,
anti-art imagery of cartoon narratives and cheap merchandising,
created a complete visual universe of his own, a signature style
that shouted his name. This, in fact, turned out the be the enduring
wonder of his art. Like an alchemist, he had managed to transform
base metals into gold. With astonishment, we began to realize
that his works were, of all unexpected reversals, marvels of decorative
elegance and complexity, like American translations of Japanese
prints....no other artist of his time had made so clear America's
prejudices that boys were destined to become virile men, eager
to destroy the enemy, and girls would end up as happy housewives,
keeping their kitchens spick-and-span. In the Car pairs
male and female perfection, distilled from the comic book source
to an ideal clarity. The male driver has a young movie star's
still unwrinkled face, marked by the firm, straight contours defining
his jaw and adorned with a cleft chin that mirrors his furrowed
brow. As for his girlfriend, who might be a stand-in for Grace
Kelly or Tippi Hedren, her equally flawless face is all curves,
from the flowing, Art Nouveau cascade of her abundant coiffure
to the smaller echoes in her smoothly rounded chin, her pursed
lips, her glowering cat-eyed stare (with just a dot of blue in
the iris to confirm her Aryan blood), and the profile of her elegantly
itsy-bitsy nose that displays the ideal results offered in the
nose-job ad Andy Warhol made famous in his Before and After
series of 1962....However fascinating In the Car may be
as a cultural mirror of everything from the rejevnating mix of
high and low in the 1960s to the growing taste for camp, it is
above all a sumptuously beautiful painting that extracts from
the comic-book image both graphic punch and intricate detail reborn
as a taut, immaculate network of jig-saw puzzle perfection."
The painting has an ambitious estimate on request
and Carol Vogel of The New York Times in an article published
October 27, 2005 wrote that "it is expected to fetch more
than $15 million," which is a bit ambitious considering that
it is a bid faded and that another 1963 version of it, almost
double its size, is in the Scottish National Gallery of Modern
Art in Edinburgh. It sold for $16,256,000, a world auction
record for the artist. The previous record was $7,159,500 set
at Christie's in New York November 13, 2002.
Lot 37 is a strong and vibrant
oil on canvas by Hans Hofmann (1880-1966) that is entitled "Stardust."
It measures 60 by 48 inches and was painted in 1959. It has a
modest estimate of $500,000 to $700,000 and is property from the
collection of Katharine and Morton G. Schamburg. It sold for
$1,584,000, breaking the previous auction record for Hofmann of
$1,105,600 set at Sotheby's November 12, 2003.
The auction has two major works
by Philip Guston (1913-1980), Lots 39 and 35. The former is entitled
"The Mirror" and is an oil on canvas that measures 68
by 60 1/2 inches. Executed in 1957, it has an estimate of $3,000,000
to $5,000,000. It sold for $3,152,000. Lot 35, "Zone,"
is a 46-by-48-inch oil on canvas that Guston executed in 1953-4.
It has an estimate of $4,000,000 to $6,000,000. It sold for
$5,504,000. Both lots are part of the Broida consignment and
both were included in the major retrospective exhibition on Guston
at the Metropolitan Museum of Art last year.
The auction also has two important
works by Francis Bacon (1909-1992), Lots 42 and 45. The former
is entitled "Study for Pope I" and is an oil on canvas
that measures 59 7/8 by 46 7/8 inches. Executed in 1961, it has
an estimate of $7,000,000 to $9,000,000. It sold for $10,096,000,
breaking the previous record of $9,007,299 set at Christie's in
London June 23, 2005. Lot 45 is entitled "Two Figures"
and is an oil with sand on canvas that measures 77 7/8 by 55 7/8
inches. It was also painted in 1961 and has an estimate of $2,500,000
to $4,000,000. It sold for $2,368,000. It is also part
of the Broida consignment.
Another Broida consignment
is Lot 46, "Untitled (Ocean Park)," a nice acrylic and
graphite on paper by Richard Diebenkorn (1922-1993)(see The City Review article on a Diebenkorn
exhibition). It measures
17 1/2 by 12 inches and was painted in 1980. It has a modest estimate
of $350,000 to $550,000. It sold for $856,000.
Another highlight of the auction
is Lot 43, "Naked Girl Perched on a Chair," by Lucian
Freud (b. 1922). An oil on canvas that measures 47 1/4 by 29 3/4
inches, it was painted in 1994 and has an estimate of $4,000,000
to $6,000,000. It sold for $5,728,000.
Lot 2, "Untitled," by Kiki Smith
sold for $284,800 setting a world auction record for the artist.
Lot 3, "Untitled (W17) Rundogrundogun,"
by Christopher Wool said for $1,248,000, setting a world auction
record for the artist.
Lot 4, "Red Morning (Hate)," by
Gilbert & George, sold for $856,000, setting a world auction
record for Gilbert & George.
Lot 7, "Untitled (Cowboy)," by
Richard Prince, sold for $1,248,000 setting a world auction record
for a work by the artist and a world auction record for any photograph.
Lot 29, "One Dollar Bill," by
Andy Warhol sold for $1,248,000 setting a world auction record
for a work on paper by the artist.
Lot 36, "Jurassic Bird," sold
for $4,994,000, setting a world auction record for artist.
Lot 41, "Nazis Murder Jews," by
Alice Neel sold for $408,000, setting a world auction record for
Lot 55, "Large Rod Series, Circle/Rectangle
5,7,9,11,13," by Walter de Maria, sold for $240,000, setting
a world auction record for the artist.
Lot 56, "Untitled," by Robert
Smithson, sold for $710,400, setting a world auction record for
Lot 63, "Colin de Land," by Elizabeth
Peyton sold for $856,000, setting a world auction record for the
Lot 67, "Hollywood Study #3,"
by Ed Ruscha, sold for $553,600, setting a world auction record
for a work on paper by the artist.
Lot 70, "The Great American Love (Love
Wall)," by Robert Indiana, sold for $856,000, a world auction
record for the artist.