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Impressionist & Modern Art

Sotheby's

November 7, 2007

Sale 8359

"Women Under a Waterfall" by Marc

Lot 41, "Der Wasserfall (Frauen Unter Einem Wasserfall)," by Franz Marc, oil on canvas, 65 by 62 1/2 inches, 1912

By Carter B. Horsley

This evening auction of Impressionist & Modern Art at Sotheby's is highlighted by a spectacular work by Franz Marc (1880-1916), two fine paintings by Paul Gauguin (1848-1903), a good landscape by Vincent van Gogh (1853-1890), a good early Lyonel Feininger (1871-1956), an excellent painting by Hermann Max Pechstein (1881-1955), several good paintings by Kees van Dongen (1877-1968), two pleasant works by Pablo Picasso (1881-1973), a good still life by George Braque (1882-1963), and an attractive painting by Claude Monet (1840-1926).

Lot 41, "Der Wasserfall (Frauen Unter Einem Wasserfall)" (Women Under A Waterfall), is a large and extremely impressive and important oil on canvas by Franz Marc. An oil on canvas, it measures 65 by 62 1/2 inches and was executed in 1912. It was the cover illustration of the German Art auction at Sotheby's in London October 6, 1999 and was in the collection of the Solomon R. Guggenheim Museum for a brief period after World War II.

The catalogue notes that this "is a pivotal work of the German Expressionist movement" and that Marc "championed freddom of expresion and a spirtualized, somewhat mystical, approach to representing the natural world."

"This new type of art had aesthetic similarities to the widly colorful compositions that the Fauves produced a few years earlier in France. But the creative efforts and philosophies of Der Blaue Reiter froup, as Marc, Kandinsky and their fellow collaborating artists came to be known, resulting in some of the most extraordinary pictures produced in central Europe in the years before the war."

Another similar work, entitled "Die Verzberte Muhle (The Bewitched Mill)," was painted one year later and is in the collection of The Art Institute of Chicago, Arthur Jerome Eddy Memorial Collection.

"Marc explained to August Macke." the catalogue entry continued, "that his coloration was not arbitrary and that his color choices represented specific characteristics. 'Blue is the male principle, severe, bitter, spiritual and intellectual. Yellow is the female principle, gentle, cheerful, and sensual. Red is matter, brutal and heavy, the color that must be fought and overcome by the other two!'"

The lot, which was sold by Sotheby's in London in 1999 for about $8 million, has an estimate of $20,000,000 to $30,000,000. It sold for $20,201,000 including the buyer's premium as do all results mentioned in this article. The price was a record for the artist.

"Te Poipoi" by Gauguin

Lot 18, "Te Poipoi (Le Matin)," by Paul Gauguin, oil on canvas, 26 3/4 by 36 1/4 inches, 1892

The cover illustration of the catalogue is Lot 18, "Te Poipoi (Le Matin," a smashing and wonderful oil on canvas by Paul Gauguin that measures 26 3/4 by 36 1/4 inches. Painted in Tahiti, it was executed in 1892. It is property from the family of Joan Whitney Payson. It has an estimate of $40,000,000 to $60,000,000. It sold for $39,241,000 to Joseph Lau of Hong Kong.

The catalogue maintains that this work " is a refreshingly modern and daring interpretation of the ritual of the bath, one of the most symbolically loaded themes in the history of western art." The composition is very dense and dynamic and its palette is rich and heated.

"Paysage aux Trois Arbes" by Gauguin

Lot 21, "Paysage aux Trois Arbes," by Paul Gauguin, oil on canvas, 24 by 36 1/4 inches, circa 1892

A less bold but still very bucolic Gauguin of about the same size and date is Lot 21, "Paysage aux Trois Arbes," an oil on canvas that measures 24 by 36 1/4 inches. It was once in the collection of Adele and Arthur Lehman of New York. It has an estimate of $9,000,000 to $12,000,000. It failed to sell and was passed at $7,750,000.

"The Fields" by Van Gogh

Lot 9, "The Fields (Wheat Fields)," by Vincent van Gogh, oil on canvas, 19 3/4 by 25 1/2 inches, circa 1890

Lot 9 is a very strong landscape by Vincent van Gogh entitled "The Fields (Wheat Fields)." An oil on canvas, it measures 19 3/4 by 25 1/2 inches and was painted circa 1890.

It is related in quality to"Wheat Field" in the Foundation Beyeler in Basel and "The Field under a Stormy Sky" in the Rijksmuseum Vincent van Gogh in Amsterdam, both of which are illustrated in the catalogue, but it is not as dramatic as the very famous "Wheat Field under Threatening Skies with Crows," also at the Rijksmuseum Vincent van Gogh.

According to an article in the October 18, 2007 edition of The New York Times by Marlise Simons, Dominique-Charles Janssens, the owner of Auberge Havoux, the country inn in Auvers-sur-Oise that was van Gogh's final abode, hopes to buy this painting and place it in the artist's room at the inn and has appealed for donations to vangoghsdream.org.

The painting has a modest estimate of $28,000,000 to $35,000,000. It failed to sell and was passed at $25,000,000.

The auction had only 76 lots as compared to 91 at Christie's the night before but only 74 percent sold at Sotheby's compared to about 81 percent at Christie's, both low figures for major evening sales. Whereas the Christie's sale total of about $394 million fell within its pre-sale estimates and its results were widely interpreted as indicating that the art market was stable, the results of the Sotheby's sale were more troublesome. The pre-sale estimate, not including buyer's premiums, was $355.6 million to $494.2 million. The auction's sale total including premiums was $269,741,600.

At the post-sale news conference, David C. Norman, co-chairman, Impressionist & Modern art, Worldwide head of department, New York, said "we had some good moments and we had some tough moments," adding that in many instances "our estimates were not accepted by the market." Mr. Norman, however, emphasized that he felt the market remains "extremely strong" especially for great pictures. The auction set a record for a drawing by Egon Schiele, Lot 3, "Self-Portrait with Checkered Shirt," which sold for $11,353,000, well over its high estimate of $6,500,000. It also set a record a Picasso sculpture with Lot 22, "Tete de femme (Dora Maar)," selling for $29,161,000 just shy of its high estimate. At Christie's auction, about half the buyers were American. Mr. Norman said that two of the top ten lots at the Sotheby's auction were acquired by Americas with the remainder split between Europeans and "others."

"The Green Bridge" by Feininger

Lot 46, "Die Grüne Brücke (The Green Bridge)," by Lyonel Feininger, oil on canvas, 39 3/4 by 31 7/8 inches, 1909

Lot 46 is a big and fine early Expressionist work by Lyonel Feininger, entitled "Die Grüne Brücke (The Green Bridge)." An oil on canvas, it measures 39 3/4 by 31 7/8 inches and was painted in 1909. It has been widely exhibited and was auctioned at Christie's in London June 25, 2001. In the past few seasons, several major works by Feininger have appeared at auction. The artist submitted this painting in1911 to the Salon des Indépendents where it hung alongside works by Matisse, Kandinsky and Delaunay. The catalogue entry notes that when Matisse came to hang one of his works next to this painting, he paused and then took it out with him explaining that "he would have to work over his painting before he would let it stand comparison with Feininger's." Feininger returned to this scene again in a 1916 work that is now in the North Carolina Museum of Art in Raleigh. "The distorted and elongated characters walking down the street," the catalogue entry continued, "echo the structure of the crooked houses along the side of the road....There was a strong socio-political subtext to many of his pictures, and the present work is an example of the artist's concerns in the years preceding World War I."

It has an estimate of $12,500,000 to $15,000,000. It sold for $10,121,000.

"Femme à La Cigarette" by van Dongen

Lot 36, "Femme à La Cigarette (Cepue)," by Kees van Dongen, oil on canvas, 25 5/8 by 19 3/4 inches, circa 1905-8

Kees van Dongen is represented by several excellent works in the auction, the most bold being Lot 36, "Femme à La Cigarette (Cepue)." An oil on canvas, the strong Fauve work measures 25 5/8 by 19 3/4 inches and was painted circa 1905-8. It has an estimate of $4,000,000 to $6,000,000. It sold for $5,417,000.

Lot 38, "Femme au Grand Chapeau," is another fine portrait of a woman by van Dongen that is very painterly. While more alluring, it is somewhat less exciting than Lot 36. It is an oil on canvas that measures 28 3/8 by 23 5/8 inches and painted circa 1912. It has an estimate of $3,500,000 to $4,500,000. It failed to sell and was passed at $2,700,000.

Lot 65, "Ines Napoli," is a strong full-length figure of a woman in a black dress by van Dongen that was painted circa 1908. An oil on canvas that measures 32 by 21 1/2 inches, it has a modest estimate of $1,400,000 to $1,800,000. It sold for $1,273,000.

Lot 63, "La Porte Dauphine," is a pleasant cityscape by van Dongen that was painted in 1924-5. An oil on canvas, it measures 39 3/4 by 32 inches. It has an estimate of $1,000,000 to $1,500,000. It sold for $1,385,000.

"Fruhling (Springtime)" by Pechstein

Lot 39, "Frühling (Springtime)," by Hermann Max Pechstein, oil on canvas, 28 by 31 1/2 inches, circa 1919

Lot 39 is a superb Expressionist painting by Herman Max Pechstein, entitled "Frühling (Springtime)." An oil on canvas, it measures 28 by 31 1/2 inches and was executed circa 1919. A fine example of German Expressionism, the catalogue entry notes that it "captures the mood of optimism and new life that spring evoikes." It has a modest estimate of $1,000,000 to $1,500,000. It sold for $1,329,000.

There are two pleasant paintings by Henri Matisse (1869-1954), Lots 44 and 51. The former is entitled "Espagnole (Buste)" and is an oil on canvas that measures 19 7/8 by 13 5/8 inches. It was painted in 1922. The entry for this lot notes that "This is one of his more intimate compositions that allows for a close engagement with the lovely young model, who is dressed in the exotic costume of a Spanish lady." The lot has an estimate of $12,000,000 to $16,000,000. It sold for $10,121,000. It was painted in an apartment Matisse rented on the third floor of 1, Place Charles Félix in Nice, France.

Lot 51 is a nude by Matisse that was also executed in 1922. An oil on canvas, it measures 21 7/8 by 13 3/8 inches. It has an estimate of $5,000,000 to $7,000,000. It sold for $4,521,000.

"La Lampe" by Picasso

Lot 28, "La Lampe," by Pablo Picasso, oil on canvas, 63 3/4 by 51 1/8 inches, 1931

There are two charming large works in the auction by Pablo Picasso, Lots 28 and 52.

Lot 28 is entitled "La Lampe" and is a very strong image, an oil on canvas that measures 63 3/4 by 51 1/8 inches. It was painted in 1931 and has an estimate of $25,000,000 to $35,000,000. It failed to sell and was passed at $21,000,000.

The catalogue provides the following commentary:

"Picasso's revelatory La Lampe introduced an extraordinary and unexpected new presence in Picasso's paintings. As a singular composition, it appears to be a vibrantly colorful ode to classicism: a plaster bust, framed and illuminated against the dark archway and surrounded by a garland of philodendron leaves. But there is much more to this picture than meets the eye, as it is the story behind the canvas that adds another powerful dimension. What we see here, bathed in the warm glow of a gas lamp that hung in his Boiseloup studio...is the unmistable likeness of the artist's mistress, Marie-Thérèse Walter...a sensual young blonde whose unveiled presence here would raise the suspicions of Picasso's wife the following year."

"Homme à La Pipe" by Picasso

Lot 52, "Homme à La Pipe," by Picasso, oil on canvas, 76 3/4 by 51 7/8 inches, 1969

Lot 52, "Homme à La Pipe," is an oil on canvas that measures 76 3/4 by 51 7/8 inches and was painted in 1969. It has an estimate of $12,000,000 to $15,000,000. It sold for $11,801,000. "This figure, in addition to the obvious connotations of manhood, was essentially a reference to the artist himself. In countless photographs from this era the artist was pictured smoking a cigarette, and the reference to smoking in this composition is a clue to the identity of the sitter. For this picture from 1969, the pipe smoker has taken on a persona of the musketeer, the hyper-masculine character that recurred in a series of canvases that the artist completed at the end of his life."

"L'Echo" by Braque

Lot 32, "L'Echo," by Georges Braque, oil on canvas, 51 1/4 by 63 3/4 inches, 1953-6

Large still lifes by Georges Braque are rather rare on the auction block and Lot 32, "L'Echo," is a superb example of the artist's wonderful compositions and lovely palette. An oil on canvas that measures 51 1/4 by 63 3/4 inches, it was painted 1953-6 and has an estimate of $15,000,000 to $20,000,000. It failed to sell and was passed at $13,000,000. The catalogue entry notes that "Once finished, L'Echo remained a source of inspiration to Braque," adding that "He kept the work in his studio and it inspired subsequent compositions."

"Aiguille d'Etretat, Marée Basse" by Monet

Lot 73, "Aiguille d'Etretat, Marée Basse," by Claude Monet, oil on canvas, 23 1/2 by 32 inches, 1883

Lot 73 is a excellent Etretat coast scene by Claude Monet with a muted palette. An oil on canvas, it measures 23 1/2 by 32 inches and was painted in 1883. When it appeared at Christie's in New York November 1, 2005 it had an estimate of $700,000 to $1,000,000 and sold for $1,920,000. Its quite conservative estimate in this auction is $1,800,000 to $2,200,000. It failed to sell and was passed at $1,300,000.

"Femmes Dans Un Jardin" by Renoir

Lot 15, "Femmes Dans Un Jardin" by Renoir, oil on canvas,21 5/8 by 25 3/4 inches, 1873

Lot 15, "Femmes Dans Un Jardin," is a lovely dense landscape by Pierre-Auguste Renoir (1841-1919). An oil on canvas, it measures 21 5/8 by 25 3/4 inches and was painted in 1873. It was once in the collection of Thelma Chrysler Foy of New York. It has an estimate of $8,000,000 to $12,000,000. It sold for $12,249,000.

"Juive d'Alger" by Corot

Lot 20, "Juive d'Alger (L'Italienne)," by Jean-Baptiste-Camille Corot, oil on canvas, 18 by 14 3/4 inches, circa 1870

Lot 20, "Juive d'Alger (L'Italienne)," is a lovely, small and very painterly work of a woman in a red skirt by Jean-Baptiste-Camille Corot (1796-1875). An oil on canvas, it measures 18 by 14 3/4 inches and was painted circa 1870. It was formerly in the collection of Mr. and Mrs. H. O. Havemeyer of New York and Wendell Cherry of Louisville and New York. It has an estimate of $2,500,000 to $3,500,000. It sold for $4,745,000. The previous record for the artist was $2,866,000.

"La Corne d'Or, Le Pont" by Signac

Lot 12, "La Corne d'Or, Le Pont," by Paul Signac, oil on canvas, 31 7/8 by 25 3/4 inches, 1907

Lot 12 is a very good oil on canvas by Paul Signac "La Corner d'Or, Le Pont," an oil on canvas that was painted in 1907. In it, the catalogue entry notes, "Signac focuses on the historically significant Golden Horn, a flooded estuary of the Bosphorus near the port of Constantinople. As in his other canvases of the Ottoman capital around this time...., the artist depicts in opulent colors the passing ships in the foreground. The skyline of Constantinople is easily recognizable in the background by the famous minarets of the mosque of Hagia Sophia....With a dazzling palette that dominated the latter decades of his artistic career, Signac pays homage to the historical richness and significance of this port while bringing a fresh vivacity to its portrayal."

The lot has an estimate of $2,000,000 to $3,000,000. It sold for $4,745,000.

"L'Epauve" by Cross

Lot 67, "L'Epauve," by Henri Edmond Cross, oil on canvas,2 3 1/2 by 31 7/8 inches, 1899


Lot 67 is a very strong work by Henri Edmond Cross (1856-1910) that is entitled "L'Epauve." An oil on canvas, it measures 23 1/2 by 31 7/8 inches and was painted in 1899. It has a modest estimate of $700,000 to $900,000. It failed to sell and was passed at $650,000.

The catalogue provides the following commentary:

"Cross painted this scene of a fisherman and his fishing boat most likely near his home in Saint Clair in 1899. The composition epitomizes the Divisionist style, with its use of opposing colors to capture the intensity of the Mediterranean sun. From the early 1890s until his death in 1910, Cross was interested in exploring the nuances of light and color with a precision that the Impressionists had never achieved. In this picture, the modulation of color, the flatness of the forms, and the purity with which Cross applied each dab of paint all characterize Divisionism and the Neo-Impressionist style. Neo-Impressionism, a movement that evolved from the Impressionists' emphasis on light and color, was rooted in the color theories of Eugène Michel Chevreul, a French chemist whose studies influenced the work of Cross and Georges Seurat. In the mid-1880s Seurat expounded upon Chevreul's teachings in his writings and his numerous studies for Un dimanche après-midi à l'île de la Grande Jatte. His developments in this area influenced artists, including Cross, Theo van Rysselberghe and Paul Signac, to incorporate these pseudo-scientific principles into their own painting in the 1890s."

"Canal du Loing-Chemin de Halage" by Sisley

Lot 14, "Canal du Loing-Chemin de Halage," by Alfred Sisley, oil on canvas, 19 3/4 by 29 inches, 1882

Lot 14 is an excellent 1882 river scene by Alfred Sisley (1838-1899). Entitled "Canal du Loing-Chemin de Halage," it is an oil on canvas that measures 19 3/4 by 29 inches. It has an estimate of $1,500,000 to $2,000,000. It sold for $1,,945,000.

"Maisons dans La Verdure" by Cézanne

Lot 33, "Maisons dans La Verdure," by Paul Cézanne, oil on canvas, 31 7/8 by 25 1/2 inches, 1881

Lot 33 is a nice townscape by Paul Cézanne (1839-1906) that is entitled "Maisons dans La Verdure." An oil on canvas, it measures 31 7/8 by 25 1/2 inches and was painted circa 1881. It was once in the collection of Pierre-Auguste Renoir.

The catalogue provides the following commentary on this lot:

"Until the publication of John Rewald's catalogue raisonné of the work of Cézanne in 1996, Maisons dans la verdure had remained largely unknown. It entered the collection of Ralph H. Booth, Grosse Point, Michigan in June 1926 but was not exhibited in public after 1931 when it was included in an exhibition at the Detroit Institute of Arts. Lionello Venturi's dating of 1879-1882 was revised to circa 1881 by Rewald who stated that 'the blue slate roofs would indicate that this is not a southern landscape. Stylistically it relates to Cézanne's work in and around Pontoise of 1881; in view of the fact that he spent five months in the region, this is probably one of the paintings executed that year.'...Painted largely in shades of dark green and ochre with touches of blue and white, the present work was executed at a turning point in Cézanne's development. During the previous decade it is impossible to overestimate the influence of Camille Pissarro [See The City Review article on the 2007 Pissarro exhibition at The Jewish Museum] on Cézanne as he gradually moved away from the feverish romanticism of his early work. Joseph J. Rishel has summarized this relationship as follows: 'In August 1872, several months after the birth of his son, Cézanne left Paris for the village of Pontoise, about an hour west of the city. The principal attraction of this place was Pissarro, who had lived and work there since 1863. At the end of the year Cézanne moved with his family to the nearby town of Auvers-sur-Oise. This short move did not interrupt the close working relationship he had developed with the older artist....The mutual influence that ensued between these two artists over the next ten years is one of the great chapters in the history of nineteenth century painting. At its beginning, the sage Pissarro endeavored to calm the ferocious young Cézanne, but, as time passed, the pupil progressively found himself in the lead, encouraging the older artist to follow his example in testing the limits of Impressionist landscape painting.'"

It has an estimate of $7,000,000 to $9,000,000. It sold for $6,761,000.

"Verre, Tasse et Journal" by Gris

Lot 26, "Verre, Tasse, et Journal," by Juan Gris, oil on canvas, 18 1/4 by 10 3/4 inches, 1913

Juan Gris (1887-1927) is one of the founders of Cubism and Lot 26 is a small but excellent oil on canvas by him that was executed in 1913. "Verre, Tasse, et Journal, it measures 18 1/4 by 10 3/4 inches. It was once in the collection of Roger Fry of London, Norman Granz of Geneva and Dame Elizabeth Murdoch of Melbourne. It has an modest estimate of $1,800,000 to $2,500,000. It sold for $3,961,000.

"Le Fermier et son espouse" by Miro

Lot 24, "Le Fermier et son Epouse," by Joan Miró, 22 7/8 by 16 3/4 inches, 1936

Lot 24, "Le Fermier et son Epouse," is an attractive fantasy painting by Joan Miró (1893-1983). An oil on canvas, it measires 22 7/8 by 16 3/4 inches and was painted in 1936. Four years later, it was acquired by Billy Wilder, the great film director, who had bought it from Ludwig Charell, a collector of Toulouse-Lautrec. The work was not seen in public unit 1989. It has an estimate of $9,000,000 to $12,000,000. It sold for $10,401,000.

"In this remarkable work," the catalogue notes, "the artist abandons half-tones and earthen hues in favor of a searing palette of primary colors: spectacularly bright reds and yellow play against cool blues and severe contrasts of blacks. Certain aspects of the bodies are composed of inflated limbs that convey an insistent sense of corporeality and mass; while other parts of the body, particularly in the male figure, become a transparent framework of colored lines, suspended against the blinding-yellow sky like a multi-colored mobile. In the foreground is the oft-repeated form of the rooster, a symbol of strength and aggression standing by and perhaps protecting the egg that appears on the verge of hatching. A few years later in Varengeville-sur-Mer in 1940, the artist would make the Rooster the sole subject of a related composition in gouache....Miró conveys the intensity and fear that pervades Europe at this time, but never allows his art to be overwhelmed by it - he remains sure-handed and the master of his imagery."

"L'Inondation à Moret-sur-Loing" by Sisley

Lot 71, "L'Inondation à Moret-sur-Loing," by Alfred Sisley, oil on canvas, 20 7/8 by 28 1/2 inches, 1888

Lot 71 is a nice riverscape by Alfred Sisley (1839-1899) that is entitled "L'Inondation à Moret-sur-Loing." An oil on canvas, it measures 20 7/8 by 28 1/2 inches and was painted in 1888. It has an estimate of $1,200,000 to $1,500,000. It sold for $1,273,000.


See The City Review article on the Spring 2007 Impressionist & Modern Art evening auction at Christie's

See The City Review article on the Spring 2007 Impressionist & Modern Art auction at Sotheby's

See The City Review article on the Fall 2006 Impressionist & Modern Art auction at Sotheby's

See The City Review article on the Spring 2006 Impressionist & Modern Art evening auction at Sotheby's

See The City Review article on the Spring 2006 Impressionist & Modern Art evening auction at Christie's

See The City Review article on the Fall 2005 Impressionist & Modern Art evening auction at Christie's

See The City Review article on the Impresssionist & Modern Art evening auction at Sotheby's November 2, 2005

See The City Review article on the Impressionist & Modern evening sale at Sotheby's in the Spring, 2005

See The City Review article on the Impressionist & Modern Art evening auction in the Fall, November, 2005

See The City Review article on the Impressionist & Modern Art day auction at Sotheby's November 5, 2004

See The City Review article on the Impressionist & Modern Art evening auction at Christie's May 4, 2004

See The City Review article on the Impressionist & Modern Art day auction at Christie's May 5, 2004

See The City Review article on the May 5, 2004 evening auction at Sotheby's of Property of the Greentree Foundation from the Collection of Mr. and Mrs. John Hay Whitney

See The City Review article on the Impressionist & Modern Art evening auction at Sotheby's May 6, 2004

See The City Review article on the Spring 2004 Impressionist & Modern Art day auction at Sotheby's

See The City Review article on the Fall 2003 Impressionist & Modern Art evening auction at Sotheby's

See The City Review article on the Fall 2003 Impressionist & Modern Art evening auction at Christie's

See The City Review article on the Spring 2003 Impressionist & Modern Art evening auction at Christie's

See The City Review article on Spring 2003 Impressionist & Modern Art day auction at Christie's

See The City Review article on the Spring 2003 Impressionist & Modern Art evening auction at Sotheby's

See The City Review article on the Spring 2003 Impressionist & Modern Art Part 2 day auction at Sotheby's

See The City Review article on the Fall 2002 Impressionist & Modern Art evening auction at Sotheby's

See The City Review article on the Fall 2002 Impressionist & Modern Art evening auction at Phillips de Pury & Luxembourg

See The City Review article on the Spring 2002 Impressionist & Modern Art day auction at Christie's

See The City Review article on the Spring 2002 Impressionist Art evening auction at Sotheby's

See The City Review article on the Spring 2002 Impressionist Art Part Two day auction at Sotheby's

See The City Review article on the Nov. 5, 2001 auction of the Smooke Collection at Phillips de Pury & Luxembourg

See The City Review article on the Nov. 5, 2001 auction of the Hoener Collection at Phillips de Pury & Luxembourg

See The City Review article on Phillips May 7, 2001 Impressionist & Modern Art auction

See The City Review article on the November 9, 2001 Impressionist & Modern Art auction at Sotheby's

See The City Review article on Phillips Fall 2000 Impressionist & Modern Art auction

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