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Impresionist & Modern Art

Part 1

Sotheby’s

7 PM, May 10, 2000

":e Portail (Soleil)" by Claude Monet

"Le Portail (Soleil)," by Claude Monet, Lot 15, 39 ¼-by-25 ¾-inch oil on canvas

By Carter B. Horsley

This auction has many fine paintings and is highlighted by "Le Portail (Soleil)," shown above, a magnificent study of the portals of Rouen Cathedral by Claude Monet (1840-1926), perhaps the finest Impressionist work to come to auction in the last decade. (It sold at Sotheby’s in 1984 and 1987.)

Monet's RouenThe luminous painting is one of the best of the 30 views of the cathedral that Monet painted between early 1892 and early 1893 and is one of 25 that is signed and dated. According to the catalogue, almost all were "most probably finished later in the artist’s studio in Giverny where Monet worked on them together, especially the group of twenty that were shown together as a discrete series in his exhibition at the Galerie Durand-Ruel in 1895."

In his 1969 book, "Claude Monet’s Paintings of Rouen," George Heard Hamilton wrote that "we can describe these paintings as the climax of Impressionism, its climax, destruction and transformation." "Upon the basis of a technique painstakingly developed through thirty years of experimentation and directed toward the depiction of separate, isolated, unrelated instants in the outer world of positivist, physical causality, the world of the railroad train, Monet erected a new king of painting which reveals the nature of perception rather than the nature of the thing perceived," Hamilton continued.

It is quite similar to one in the collection of the Metropolitan Museum of Art. The Musée d’Orsay in Paris has a bluer version. It is interesting to note that the painting cuts off the upper parts of the towers that flank the cathedral’s portals, as is clearly shown in a nice black-and-white photograph taken of the cathedral, circa 1890. Monet’s composition is better than the real thing.

The 39 ¼-by-25 ¾-inch oil on canvas, Lot 15, has a very conservative estimate of $15- to $20-million. It has been widely exhibited and there is considerable literature on it. It sold for $24,205,750 including the buyer's premium as do as the sales results in this article. In 1984, the painting sold for $2.5 million at Sotheby's and three years later sold again at Sotheby's for $3.1 million. While the $24-million price was quite respectable, it probably would have fetched substantially more had the stock markets not gone into a dive in the weeks prior to the auction as it is a "supreme" work.

"L'Abandon Ou Les Deux Amies" by Toulouse-Lautrec

Large detail of Lot 9, "L’Abandon Ou Les Deux Amies," by Henri de Toulouse-Lautrec (Vertical line in center is crease in catalogue's fold-out reproduction. Vertical line at the left is where two pieces of cardboard have been joined and the work is signed at the lower left which has been cropped out in this picture.)

Another blockbuster is Lot 9, "L’Abandon Ou Les Deux Amies," by Henri de Toulouse-Lautrec (1864-1901), a masterful study of two women lying side by side on a sofa in their nightclothes that is a bravura study in bold brushwork. The work, shown above, is on two joined sheets of cardboard, 18 by 26 1/8 inches and was painted in 1895. It has a very conservative estimate of $6- to $8-million. It sold for $9,355,750.

"The present work belongs to the great series of brothel pictures Lautrec executed in the 1890s that focused on the relationships between the filles de maison. Between 1892 and 1895, the artist frequented the brothels in the Rue des Moulins, the Rue d’Ambroise and the Rue Joubert, often lodging there for weeks at a time. He was thus able to observe the intense personal relationships that sprung up between the working women - who more often than not had been forsaken by family and friends - and his profound understanding of their human condition have rise to this unprecedented group of paintings. Whilst living with them in the brothels, their daily routine and moments of trust and intimacy wee continually before his eyes. …The prostitutes’ naturalness appealed to Lautrec: ‘Models always look as if they were stuffed; these women are alive. I wouldn’t dare pay them to pose for me, yet God knows they’re worth it. They stretch themselves out on the divans like animals…they’re so lacking pretension, you know,’" the catalogue quoted the artist as observing.

"In the context of his oeuvre," the catalogue entry maintained, "these are virtually the only works Lautrec ever painted which show any tenderness between human beings."

"In this work," it continued, "Lautrec combined carefully delineated forms with oil paint thinned with turpentine, producing peinture à l’essence. This medium, which allowed him to achieve almost transparent layers of pigment, dried faster on the unprimed grounds he chose, lending thte painting a matte, pastel-like quality that resembles certain works by Degas, who also made particularly effective use of peinture à l’essence….it has been suggested the composition was carefully staged by Lautrec, and actually executed in his studio rather than in a brothel. The sofa on which the two women are resting also appears in another work from the series, Le Sofa in the Metropolitan Museum of Art." This is a much finer painting that the one at the Metropolitan although the joining of the two pieces of cardboard is visible off to the left and could be cut off if one did not mind losing the signature and enduring the wrath of purists.

"The achievement of such nuanced sexuality may well be indebted to Lautrec’s study of Japanese erotic woodcuts…, of which he owned a collection. The decorative flecks on the divan may also emulate the surface liveliness of Japanese pints, and they are consistent with the graphic curlicues which animate other motifs of the id-1890s, such as the posters Troupe de Mlle Eglantine and P. Sescau-photographe….Such decorative accents do not counteract the illusion of volume and depth. The mass of the foreground figure is confidently implied by Lautrec’s draughtmanship. And the flowing chemise whichcover sit recalls the drapery on Antique sculpture which Lautrec admired in the British Museum," noted Richard Thomson in his exhibition catalogue of Toulouse-Lautrec at the Hayward Gallery in London and the Grand Palais in Paris in 1991 and 1992.

Lot 32, "Compotier et Guitare," shown above, a 38 1/8-by-51 1/8-inch oil on canvas still life, dated "13.2.32," by Pablo Picasso (1881-1973) carries the auction’s highest estimate, $10- to $15-million. It sold for $9,905,750. About eight years ago, the painting was sold at Christie's for about $3.8 million. The catalogue entry makes much of the fact that the artist did several still lifes at the time whose "emphatic arabesques and ample, harmonising curves" were celebrations of the feminity of Marie-Thérèse Walter, his mistress at the time and it reproduces in color a very strong and brighter example that is known in the Musée Picasso in Paris. "Although recognizing Marie-Thérèse’s presence in Picasso’s paintings of this time, Linda Nochlin noted how these images emcompass more than simply disguised references to an ardently sought after sexual partner, and are, in fact, a continuation of Picasso’s preoccupation with the process of reativity," the catalogued remarked.

While Lot 32 is quite large and dramatic, it is not a great Picasso although its estimate is probably accurate given recent, astronomic Picasso results.

A far more charming Picasso is Lot 3, "La Lecture," a 17 ½-by-12 1/8- inch pastel on paper laid down on board from the collection of Benno and Nancy Schmidt. Executed in Madrid in 1901, when he sought to ingratiate himself with high society to free himself from his financial straits, the world is quite vibrant with the lady’s large orange skirt, flak shawl, black chair, black hair, black dog, green wall and blue mirrors. Picasso’s early work are richly saturated in colors and begin to have an gentle abstraction that would soon be molded with the poetry of his Blue and Rose periods before he explosively explored the possibilities of Cubism. These early works stand in marked contrast with the soft, pastelly interiors of the Nabis and have a amore careful compositional approach than the wild experiments with color that the Fauves would soon unleash. This delightful work has a modest estimate of $800,000 to $1,200,000 and is far more appealing for a connoisseur’s cabinet than many of his later slap-dash, large abstractions that he produced with impressive quantity in later years.

"Blanchisseuse a Eragny" by Camile Pissarro

Lot 1, "Blanchisseuse a Eragny," by Camille Pissarro, gouache on paper, 21 ½ by 18 inches, 1887

From the same collection are two other connoisseur’s gems: Lots 1 and 2, a gouache on paper by Camille Pissaro (1830-1903) and a oil on canvas by Paul Signac (1863-1935), respectively. The former, which is dated 1887 and measures 21 ½ by 18 inches, and entitled, "Blanchisseuse a Eragny," shown above, is an exceptionally fine Pissaro of strong brushwork and color and composition. It has a conservative estimate of $300,000 to $500,000. It sold for $445,750. The latter is 19 by 21 ½ inches and is dated the same year as the Pisarro and entitled "Le Pre Comblat, Le Chateau Cantal. "During 1887, the loose brushwork of Signac’s early Impressionist manner was gradually superseded by a more systematic application of dates of color, derived from his study of the work of Seurat. The present work, a study of a chateau partially concealed by trees in the middle distance, is a crisp distillation of an essentially Impressionist motif, characterised by paint application of the greatest deliberation and finesse. It has a modest estimate of $700,000 to $900,000. It sold for $610,750.

Lot 4, also from the Schmidt Collection, is a lovely still life by Odile Redon with flowers that is an oil on canvas, 21 ¾ by 15 ¼ inches, and painted circa 1900. It has a reasonable estimate of $500,000 to $700,000 and these four works are a most charming group. It sold for $775,750.

Lady on beach by Monet

Lot 6, oil on canvas, 18 1/8 by 15 inches, by Claude Monet

For admirers of small, sketchy works by masters, Lot 6 may prove rather irresistible as it is a lovely study in oil on canvas, 18 1/8 by 15 inches, of a woman beneath a parasol seated on a chair by the seashore with sailboats in the distance under bright clouds. The work, which has a conservative estimate of $1,000,000 to $1,500,000, was once in the collection of Jacques Guerlain in Paris and formerly was owned by Emile Petit-Didier, a critic who wrote under the name Emile Blémont, and that the painting is a pochade. It is shown above. It sold for $2,315,750. "In Monet’s oeuvre a number of pochades have been identified. They are relatively rare, an all seem to be rapidly painted works that were then given to friends, exchanged with other artists, or sold informally as seems to be the case with the present work….These canvases represent a special category within Monet’s work. They are neither sketches nor finished paintings in the traditional sense. All are noteworthy for their freshness, spontaneity and informality. As such they present a particularly appealing and engaging aspect of Monet’s work," the catalogue noted.

It contrasts rather nicely with a larger work, Lot 8, by Berthe Morisot (1841-1895), that shows a young woman dressed in white, seated behind a screen. The 29-by-23 5/8-inch oil on canvas, painted in 1878-9, has a somewhat conservative estimate of $1,200,000 to $1,500,000. It sold for $1,325,750. It is quite charming and pensive and was formerly in such American collections as James Stillman and Mrs. Florence Gould.

"Preparation Pour La Classe" by Edgar Degas

Lot 12, "Preparation Pour La Classe," by Edgar Degas, pastel on paper, 25 ½ by 19 5/8 inches, dated circa 1882-5

Other highlights include a very fine ballerina pastel by Edgar Degas (834-1917), lot 12, shown above and below; a very interesting landscape by Paul Gauguin (1848-1903), Lot 14; a strong still life by Van Gogh (1853-1890); Lot 21, a water lily painting by Monet, Lot 22; a good plaster cast by Constantin Brancusi (1876-1957); Lot 24, a pleasant bronze of "La Serpentine - Femme a la Stele - L’Araignee," by Henri Matisse (1869-1954); Lot 25, a good Alfred Sisley (1839-1899); Lot 26, two Modigliani paintings of women, Lots 27 and 34; a nice Alberto Giacommeti (1901-1966) statuary group, Lot 37; a good Fernard Léger (1881-1955) still life, a superb Paul Klee (1879-1940); Lot 41, an excellent small portrait of a seated woman by Pierre-August Renoir (1841-1919); Lot 43, and a very compelling small painting of a seated woman by Pierre Bonnard (1867-1947); Lot 44, a powerful painting of three judges by Georges Roualt (1871-1958); Lot 45, an interesting statue by Joan Miró (893-1983), Lot 46; and a very striking Salvador Dalí (1904-1989), Lot 50.

Tobias Meyer auctioning a Degas

Tobias Meyer auctioning Lot 12, "Preparation pour la Classe," by Edgar Degas with David Norman, and Charles S. Moffett of the auction house's department of Impressionist Art working the phones to his right.

The Degas, Lot 12, is a pastel on paper, 25 ½ by 19 5/8 inches, dated circa 1882-5 and entitled "Preparation Pour La Classe." It was once in the collection of Mr. and Mrs. Martin A. Ryerson of Chicago and was sold at Sotheby’s in London, June 30, 1998, for less than $3 million. It has a conservative estimate of $5- to 7-million since its composition is perhaps the tightest and most interesting of his popular ballerina pastel series. It sold for $5,285,750. It had sold for about $4.9 million at Sotheby's in 1990 and again in 1998.

"The present work is notable for the imposing scale of the figures in relation to the sheet and for the sculptural presence of the central dancer, tying her sash behind her back, which is emphasized by the movement of her companions to right and left," the catalogue noted. The work has an unusual texture. "The pastel is more lumpy and less fragmentary than most pastels, forming a pockmarked crust across the paper. This effect seems to be the result of the humidifying technique described by Denis Rouart. Degas moistened his pastels with the steam from a tea kettle, melting them into a brittle glaze, as here, or reworking the pastel with a brush," it observed.

Many of his pastels of dancers are aflutter with whites and yellows and are pretty works, but few rise to the high level of artistry demonstrated in this work whose palette is deeper and darker.

The Gauguin, Lot 14, is a 29 ¾-by-23 5/8-inch oil on canvas, dated 1888, and entitled "Pecheur et Baigneurs Sur L’Aven." It has a conservative estimate of $2- to $3-million, reflecting its unusual composition and subject matter. It sold for $2,865,750. "After spending several months in Martinique the summer of 1887, where he began using a more brilliant palette, in order to capture the strong light and luxuriant vegetation of the Tropics, Gauguin returned to Pont-Aven in January, 1888. Responding to the rugged landscape of the area, so different from the countryside of Pointoise and Normandy where he had painted in previous years, Gauguin largely relinquished his orthodox Impressionist style in a series of canvases of great originality. Pecheur et bagineurs sur L’Aven combines the radiant palette developed in Martinique with a compositional audacity that owes a great deal to Japanese prints, especially those of Hiroshige….he matched the vertiginous views typical of the Brittany landscape with plunging perspectives derived from Japanese prints. The great discrepancy in size between the figures bathing and fishing the middle-distance and the moored boat on the far side of the River Aven results in a general flattening of the space, an effect emphasized by the decorative treatment of the vegetation and the use of broad areas of pure, unmodulated color," the catalogue noted.

The catalogue’s entry for this lot also includes a small color reproduction of another Gauguin work of the same year, "Marine avec vache au dessus, du gouffre," in the Musée des Arts décoratifs in Paris that is a highly abstract work of great vigor. Both works indicate a boldness in Gauguin’s work of this period that many people may not be familar with and which is quite astounding and wonderful and should heighten the artist’s already high stature.

"Spielzeug (Toy)" by Paul Klee

Lot 41, "Spielzeug (Toy)," by Paul Klee, watercolor on paper, 17 3/8 by 25 inches, 1931

The Klee, Lot 41, shown above, is one of this great artist’s jewels. Entitled "Spielzeug (Toy)," it is a watercolor on paper laid down on the artist’s mount, 17 3/8 by 25 inches and is dated 1931. It has a very conservative estimate of $550,000 to $750,000. It sold for $665,750. It was exhibited in the "Treasures of Twentieth Century Art from the Moremont Collection" at the National Gallery of Art in Washington, DC, in 1964.

"In the winter of 1928-29," the catalogue recounts, "Klee visited Egypt and, as was the case with his earlier stay in Tunisia in 1914, this trip had a profound and lasting influence on his art. On his return to Dessau, Klee began executing a series of monumental works, which culminated in the large oil Ad Paranassum of 1932. Like this major oil painting, the present work is also composed of two ‘polyphonically’ superimposed planes - one of colored squares, the other of Pointillist dots - from which the harmonies develop. In the present work the primary tension is created by the juxtaposition of he sweeping bold lines and shaped motifs and the richly nuanced spectrum of colored dots. The subtle fabric of color is disturbed the bye insistency of the linear forms and symbols, which appear like enigmatic hieroglyphs against a vibrant background."

The beige, blue, red, brown, and gray dots are applied with great control and spatial specificity and appear to have been applied only after Klee had drawn his "hieroglyphs," which here include some stick figures, musical notes, a horse, circles and a star among others. The composition is arranged into distinct planes created by two "L" shape strong lines connected by one horizontal straight line.

Klee’s oeuvre is consistently outstanding and delightful. Here, however, he has moved beyond mere decorative arrangements to mysterious geometries that seem to raise the hieroglyphs to a prominent plateau in the work’s space, an effect created in part by the edges having a darker pattern of darks suggesting, perhaps, shadows and depth. The "plateau," however, is quite luminous, suggesting that this is a hopeful, perhaps happy, environment. This is a very fine work that would stand out well in collection.

Portrait of a woman by Renoir

Lot 43, Portrait of a Woman, by Renoir, oil on canvas, 15 1/8 by 11 1/2 inches, 1895

The Renoir, Lot 43, shown above, is atypical of this artist’s large body of small paintings and sketches, which have flooded the auction markets in recent decades and given a poor impression of his talents since most of them have been poorly executed and unattractive. This 15 1/8-by-11 ½-inch oil on canvas of a seated woman was painted in 1895 and has a very conservative estimate of $700,000 to $900,000. It was bought by Ira Spanierman, the dealer, for $1,105,750.

Here, Renoir’s brushwork and palette are brilliant and the overall effect well reflects his early acquaintance with fine ceramics. While the woman has a lot of space around her, the bottom of the picture appears not to be have been well thought out as the bottom of her skirt dissolves and is not clearly rendered in contrast to the fine modeling of the rest of her. The flamboyance of her hat immediately draws attention to her simple face that looks directly at the viewer and her erect posture not leaning back against the contrasting dark browns and reds of the chair indicate that she is poised, alert, intense and perhaps a bit unsettled or uncomfortable. The composition’s tour de force, however, is the brilliant green sash around her waist that flows by her side vertically to the bottom of the composition, reinforcing the tension, all of which is further enhanced by the monocrhomatic, undetailed background that places her in a neutral space but whose rich red color implies protection and warmth. The top of the dress around her neck is a bit unresolved, but part of the charm of Renoir is his clumsiness with details countered by his focus on highlights and mood and environment. Do you want me to stay, to leave? his model seems to be asking. This work was formerly in the collections of such connoisseurs as Sam Salz and Joseph H. Hirschhorn. At his best, Renoir is a fabulous painter, but his recent sales history has been rather lackluster because so many of his lesser and disappointing works have been available. This, of course, is not one of his masterpieces, but it is one of his finest studies.

"Le Chapeau Au Ruban Bleu" by Pierre Bonnard

Lot 44, "Le Chapeau Au Ruban Bleu," by Pierre Bonnard, 24 1/2 by 19 inches, oil on paper, 1912

The Bonnard, Lot 44, is an intensely intimate portrait that is most compelling and lovely in its depiction of this apparently modest, shy, immature young lady whose sidewards gaze and crossed arms indicate a brooding restlessness. The 24 ½-by-19-inch oil on paper laid down on canvas was painted in 1912 and is entitled "Le Chapeau Au Ruban Bleu," because she is wearing a big hat with a blue ribbon. The lot has an estimate of $700,000 to $900,000. It failed to sell at $550,000.

Judges by Roualt

Lot 45. "Judges" by Georges Roualt, oil on canvas, 20 by 41 1/4 inches, 1932

In stark contrast to Bonnard’s intimate, personal and emotional portrait in Lot 44, the Roualt, Lot 45, shown above, is a massive, monumental statement of powerful, fearful authority. The 20-by- 41 ¼-inch oil on canvas was painted in 1932 and has an estimate of $700,000 to $900,000 reflecting the artist’s continued unevaluation in the marketplace. It was passed at $580,000, but a private sale was consumated immediately after the auction, according to Sotheby's.

The catalogue notes that in his judges’ series, to the effect that "it was the moral issues of human justice that really captured his imagination." It proceeds to quotes his daughter, Isabelle Roualt: "Having prior to 1907 focussed his curiosity exclusively upon the dram of individual souls which he saw…from that date onwards his vision began to broaden and draw his attention towards what one might term the sin of society….Where not the errors and the ridiculous aspects of this expanding society mirrored in its judicial system….There is a further aspect of the legal institution which Roualt found especially outrageous and that was its conflict with the Word, its rejection and actual negation of the only word which Roualt recognized, namely the Word of Christ."

The catalogue goes on to quote the artist himself about the judges: "If I have depicted these judges as having such appalling faces, it is probably because I betrayed some of the anguish I felt before the spectacle of a human beiung sitting in judgement over his fellowmen. If I sometimes confuse the judge’s face with that of the defendant, it was a mark of my own utter confusion - I cannot even bring myself to condemn a judge."

Other notable works are Lot 39, a fine large still life by Fernand Léger that was once in the collection of James Johnson Sweeney and has an estimate of $1,800,000 to $2,500,000 and which sold for $2,535,750; a pleasant, bright but rather weak painting of a nude by Henri Matisse, Lot 42, that has an estimate of $3- to $4-million and which sold for $3,085,750; a strong Surrealist nude by Salvador Dalí, Lot 50, which has a modest estimate of $500,000 to $700,000 and which sold for $1,545,750; Lot 37, a 24 ½-inch long group of figures that is one of six bronzes of the subject made by Alberto Giacometti and has an ambitious estimate of $5- to $7-million and which sold for $4,515,750; and a portrait of a seated red-headed lady, Lot 27, by Amedeo Modigliani that is not too bad and has an ambitious estimate of $5.5- to $7-million and which sold for $6,275,750.

A major sculpture highlight was Lot 25, "La Serpentine," a 22-inch-high statue of a woman, by Henri Matisse that is from an edition of 10 and one artist’s proof. The edition was started in 1910 and this example was cast in 1948 and has an ambitious estimate of $8- to $10-million. It sold for $14,030,740, which surpassed the previous world auction record for a Matisse sculpture of $9,242,500 and approached the world auction record for a Matisse painting of $14,852,500.

Lot 35, "Nu Aux Bras Leves," by Balthus (b. 1908) sold for $3,085,750, surpassing the previousworld auction record of $2,090,000 for a Balthus painting. The lot had had a high estimate of $2,200,000. The 59 3/8-by-32 1/2-inch oil on canvas depicts a naked adolescent girl stretching while seated on a bed.

Lot 36 was a much brighter and pleasant nude, and a greater painting, by Pierre Bonnard ( (1867-1947) that sold within its estimate for $4,625,750.

Lot 22 is a large "Nyphéas" by Monet that has an ambitious estimate of $7- to $9-million. It sold for $8,365,750.

Lot 24 is a rare 1912 cast plaster of a woman’s head by Constantin Brancusi (1876-1957) that is very conservatively valued at $500,000 to $600,000. It sold for $1,050,750.

Lot 21 is a very strong still life of flowers by Vincent Van Gogh (18853-1890) that sold at Sotheby’s May 13, 1998 for $4,0732,500 just over its high estimate of $4 million. This time around it has an estimate of $5- to $7-million! It sold for $4,625,750.

Of 50 lots offered, 42 sold and the sale total was $140,354,000. The pre-sale low estimate was $117 million and the high estimate was $162 million. High estimates were exceeded by 15 lots, 17 lots fell within the pre-sale estimates, and 10 below. There were 28 lots that sold for more than $1 million.

William Ruprecht, president of Sotheby's

William Ruprecht, Sotheby's president and chief operating officer, trying to hear question at press conference after the auction

William Ruprecht, Sotheby's president and chief operating officer, who stood next to Tobias Meyer, the auctioneer, during the auction, told a press conference after the sale, that this auction had been "put together" subsequent to the disclosure in late January of a Federal anti-trust investigation into fee-fixing between Sotheby's and Christie's and that the investigation had apparently had no effect on it being able to acquire objects for auction nor on the prices realized. He also said that a new fee schedule introduced April 1 had not had "any significant" effect on consignments, or buying. Under the new schedule, buyer's premiums have been increased to 20 percent up to and including 15,000, 15 percent for lots selling for $15,001 to $100,000 and 10 percent for lots selling for more than $100,000.

The auction was not without a flaw. Lot 19, "Ferme à Montgeroult," by Paul Cézanne, had to be recalled several lots later after it originally was hammered down for $4.5 million. On its second go-round, which started at $4 million, it was passed at $4.2 million. Mr. Ruprecht later remarked that there apparently was some "confusion" about a bid. It had been estimated at $5,000,000 to $7,000,000.

See The City Review article on Impressionist & Modern Art, Part Two, at Sotheby's, May 11, 2000

See The City Review Article on the Impressionist and Modern Art auctions May 11 & 12 at Phillips

See The City Review article on the Impressionist & Post-Impressionist evening auction May 9, 2000 at Christie's

See The City Review article on the Sotheby's Impressionist & Modern Art Auction, Part I, Nov. 11, 1999

See The City Review article on Part Two of the Sotheby's auction November 11, 1999 of Impressionist & Modern Art

See The City Review article on the Christie's Nov. 8, 1999 evening sale of Impressionist & Post Impressionist Art

See The City Review article on the morning auction Nov. 9, 1999 of Impressionist and Post-Impressionist Art at Christie's

See The City Review article on the afternoon auction Nov. 9, 1999 of Impressionist and Twentieth Century Works on Paper at Christie's

See The City Review article on the Christie's Nov. 9, 1999 evening auction of Twentieth Century Art

See The City Review article on the Christie's Nov. 10, 1999 day auction of Twentieth Century Art

See The City Review analysis of Part 1 of the Sotheby's auction May 11, 1999 of Impressionist and Modern Art

See The City Review analysis of Part 2 of the Sotheby's May 12, 1999 auction of Impressionist and Modern Art

See The City Review article on the Christie's May 12, 1999 auction of Impressionist Art and 19th Century Art

See The City Review of the Christie's May 13, 1999 auction of 20th Century and Modern Art

Recap of the Spring 1998 Impressionist and Modern Auctions

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