By Carter B. Horsley
The retrospective exhibition
on Zaha Hadid at the Solomon R. Guggenheim Museum in New York
in 2006 makes it abundantly clear that Ms. Hadid is the foremost
creator of intriguing architectural compositions in the world,
surpassing even Frank O. Gehry in this regard.
Gehry, of course, is the pre-eminent
architect in the world as measured by his completed projects.
In comparison, Ms. Hadid has only a handful of projects that have
brought to fruition as real buildings, although this exhibition
suggests that her built portfolio is likely to be grow substantially
over the next few years.
The exhibition is overwhelming
and a bit claustrophobic: despite the fact that it occupies all
the exhibition space in the museum's famous rotunda, there is
too much to absorb. For those only familiar with a couple of Hadid
works such as "The Peak," a proposal for a country club
in Hong Kong, and a recent building in Cincinatti, this exhibition
is a real eye-opener that goes a long way to explaining her quite
impressive reputation in architectural circles.
It perhaps might have been
better to have organized it into three separate and consecutive
shows: the first based on her remarkable paintings and drawings;
the second based on her even more fantastic models; and the third
based on photographs, models, and renderings of her completed
and in-progress projects. This exhibition takes the non-unreasonable,
chronological approach to her work and is accompanied by a catalogue
that is good but frustrating.
One comes away from a couple
of visits to the museum and a quick reading of the catalogue visually
exhausted and rather dumb-founded.
Some artists and architects
create an oeuvre with a consistent and rather easily identifiable
style. One can recognize such a style in Hadid's early large paintings,
which are energetic, explosive works of varying and mixed perspectives.
One such example is "The World," a large 1983 acrylic
painting that is one of the simpler ones.
Her visions of warped, colliding
"worlds" at first glance appeared to be cosmic and universal
rather than specific, single-project oriented. Closer examination
of some of the images reveal that the subject of the work, the
project, have contexts that exist with similar dimensionalities,
which is to say, that her "projects" have no discernible
"roots," "specificity," and are very abstract.
Another early large painting, "Grand Buildings,
London," is supposed to capture "the behavior of Hadid's
proposal project for Trafalgar Square during a 24-hour period.
Like many of her early large paintings, its swirling forms have
something of a faschinating, hynoptic, almost pscyhedelic impact
as if through a three-dimensional kaleidoscope.
Zaha Hadid has been "The Flying Dutchman"
of contemporary architecture for almost a generation: a mythical,
rather undecipherable force whose works have been more virtual
than real, whose influence has not matched her fame. Although
she became the first woman recipient of the prestigious Pritzker
Prize for Architecture in 2004, her oeuvre remains largely unknown
to the public.
For the cognoscienti, however, her warped visions
hinted at exciting new worlds and new dimensions. Her drawings
were more colorful and wilder than those of Peter Eisenman, the
profession's most intellectual practitioner. She seemed to be
visualizing a new language of forceful and very dynamic forms,
well in advance of computer-aided designs.
Her roots were at the Royal Academy in London
where she studied with Rem Koolhaus, a serious but at times whimsical
architect of considerable influence. Koolhaus has finally gotten
around to building some good and quite interesting projects, but
Hadid's built oeuvre is still small and while interesting not
Yet her reputation has not faltered and her
current retrospective at the Solomon R. Guggenheim Museum in New
York gives ample evidence of her genius. She has been very, very
busy and produced a staggeringly impressive body of work that
is without equal for its inventiveness.
Untangling Hadid is not easy. Her work owes
a substantial debt to the Russian Constructivists and the more
recent Deconstructivist style of architecture. Examining her designs
reveals planes to float and fly apart, but despite the explosive
chaos of some of her renderings there is an organic goo to her
work that keeps it from falling apart like a discarded, splayed
corpse. There is a pounding heartbeat and staccato rhythm to many
of her designs.
The following commentary is from the Pritzker
"The architectural career of Zaha Hadid
has not been traditional or easy. She entered the field with illustrious
credentials. Born in Baghdad, she studied at the highly regarded
Architectural Association in London, was a partner in the avant
gard Office of Metropolitan Architecture with Rem Koolhaas, and
has held prestigious posts at one time or another at the worlds
finest universities including Harvard, Yale, and many others.
Much admired by the younger generation of architects, her appearance
on campuses is always a cause for excitement and overflowing audiences.
"Her path to world-wide recognition has
been an heroic struggle as she inexorably rose to the highest
ranks of the profession. Clients, journalists, fellow professionals
are mesmerized by her dynamic forms and strategies for achieving
a truly distinctive approach to architecture and its settings.
Each new project is more audacious than the last and the sources
of her originality seem endless.
"Ms. Hadid has become more and more recognized
as she continues to win competition after competition, always
struggling to get her very original winning entries built. Discouraged,
but undaunted, she has used the competition experiences as a 'laboratory'
for continuing to hone her exceptional talent in creating an architectural
idiom like no other....
"The competition winning phase of Ms.
Hadids career gradually began to result in built works such
as the Vitra Fire Station, the LFone in Weil am Rhein, the Mind
Zone in the Millennium Dome and reached a recent high point with
the opening of the critically acclaimed Rosenthal Center for Contemporary
Art in Cincinnati, Ohio."
Ada Louise Huxtable, the architecture critic
who then was a member of the Pritzker jury, remarked that "Hadids
fragmented geometry and fluid mobility do more than create an
abstract, dynamic beauty; this is a body of work that explores
and expresses the world we live in.
Another member of the same jury, Carlos Jimenez
observed that "Presaged by an inimitable graphic and formal
exuberance, Zaha Hadids work reminds us that architecture
is a siphon for collective energies, a far cry from the stand
alone building, perennially oblivious to the vitality of the city,"
adding that "Buildings for Hadid are thresholds, passageways,
that reveal or intersect the ever shifting actions of the city.
Her work celebrates this encounter as the catalyst through which
hidden, past, present or future events revolve."
There is, unquestionably, a lot of hocus pocus
and mumbo jumbo associated with Hadid's work, or at least the
finished product that so far has not lived up to the hype.
In the media kit for her Pritzker Prize, it
was noted that "More recently, she held the Kenzo Tange Chair
at the Graduate School of Design, Harvard University; the Sullivan
Chair at the University of Illinois, School of Architecture in
Chicago; and has held guest professorships at the Hochschule für
Bildende Künste in Hamburg, the Knolton School of Architecture,
Ohio and the Masters Studio at Columbia University, New York.
In addition, she was made an Honorary Member of the American Academy
of Arts and Letters, a Fellow of the American Institute of Architecture
and a Commander of the British Empire, 2002. She is currently
Professor at the University of Applied Arts in Vienna, Austria
and is the Eero Saarinen Visiting Professor of Architectural Design
for the Spring Semester 2004 at Yale University, New Haven, Connecticut."
The media kit also listed her "built works":
"Zaha Hadids built work has won her much academic and
public acclaim. Her best known projects to date are the Vitra
Fire Station and the LFone pavilion in Weil am Rhein, Germany
(1993/1999), the Mind Zone at the Millennium Dome, Greenwich,
London, UK (1999), a Tram Station and Car Park in Strasbourg,
France (2001), a Ski Jump in Innsbruck, Austria (2002) and the
Contemporary Arts Centre, Cincinnati, US (2003). She has also
completed furniture and interiors: Bitar, London (1985); Moonsoon
Restaurant, Sapporo (1990); Z-Play (2002) and Z-Scape (2000) furniture
manufactured by Sawaya and Moroni; and the Tea and Coffee Towers
for Alessi (2003). Her temporary structures include: Folly in
Osaka (1990); Music Video Pavilion in Groningen, Netherlands (1990);
a Pavilion for Blueprint Magazine at Interbuild, Birmingham (1995);
the installation Meshworks at the Villa Medici, Rome, Italy (2000)
the summer pavilion for the Serpentine Gallery, London, UK (2000);
and the R. Lopez de Heredia Vina Tondonia Pavilion, Barcelona,
Spain (2001). Zaha Hadid has also worked on a number of stage
sets: Pet Shop Boys World Tour (1999/2000); Metapolis, for Charleroi
Dance production company, Belgium (2000); and Beat Furrers
opera, Desire, commissioned by the Steirischer Herbst, Graz (2003),
and an Ice and Snow Installation in Lapland."
Such accomplishments are mildly impressive, but the real excitement
is what has been on the drawing boards. The following is the media
kit's list at the time of winning the Pritzker Prize:
"Zaha Hadids office is working on a variety of projects:
the Contemporary Arts Centre MAXXI in Rome, Italy;
the Ordrupgaard Museum extension in Copenhagen, Denmark; a Guggenheim
Museum in Taichung; a Science Centre in Wolfsburg, Germany; a
Maritime Ferry Terminal in Salerno, Italy; a High Speed Train
Station in Napoli-Afragola, Italy; a public square and cinema
complex in Barcelona, Spain; a masterplan for Singapores
Science Hub; a masterplan for Bilbaos Zorrozaurre district,
Spain; a masterplan for Beijings Soho City, China; the interior
design for Hotel Puerta America in Madrid, Spain;
a Central Plant Building for BMW in Leipzig, Germany; a social
housing project Spittelau Viaduct in Vienna, Austria;
a major bridge structure in Abu Dhabi; the Maggies Centre
in Kirkcaldy, Scotland; an extension of the Price Tower Arts Centre
in Bartlesville, USA; the Opera House in Guangzhou, China; and
a new archive, library, and sport center in Montpellier, France."
Perhaps the best "built" Hadid project
is the Phaeno Science Center in Wolfsburg, Germany, that was built
between 1999 and 2005. The building is supported by very large
angled columns that are intended to permit the space beneath the
building to "become part of the urban fabric" and the
building's "distorted" shape is intended to "convey
movement and the sense of transformation."
The building resembles a bent punch card from
the early days of computing or a model of a barcode spaceship.
It is attractive.
Hadid's BMW Central Building in Liepzig, Germany,
was built between 2001 and 2006 and its exterior is not as interesting
as itsinteriors where a car production line passes over multilevel
floor plates with platforms that function as open office spaces.
The purpose of the Pritzker Architecture Prize
is to honor annually a living architect whose built work demonstrates
a combination of those qualities of talent, vision and commitment,
which has produced consistent and significant contributions to
humanity and the built environment through the art of architecture.
The prize was established in 1979 by The Hyatt Foundation.
Hadid is the third architect from the United
Kingdom to be awarded the Pritzker Prize: the late James Stirling
of Great Britain was elected in 1981, and in 1999 Lord (then Sir
Norman) Foster. Philip Johnson was the first Pritzker Laureate
in 1979. The late Luis Barragán of Mexico was named in
1980. Kevin Roche in 1982, Ieoh Ming Pei in 1983, and Richard
Meier in 1984. Hans Hollein of Austria was the 1985 Laureate.
Gottfried Böhm of Germany received the prize in 1986. Kenzo
Tange was the first Japanese architect to receive the prize in
1987; Fumihiko Maki was the second from Japan in 1993; and Tadao
Ando the third in 1995. Robert Venturi received the honor in 1991,
and Alvaro Siza of Portugal in 1992. Christian de Portzamparc
of France was elected Pritzker Laureate in 1994. The late Gordon
Bunshaft of the United States and Oscar Niemeyer of Brazil, were
named in 1988. Frank Gehry was the recipient in 1989, the late
Aldo Rossi of Italy in 1990. In 1996, Rafael Moneo of Spain was
the Laureate; in 1997 Sverre Fehn of Norway; in 1998 Renzo Piano
of Italy, and in 2000, Rem Koolhaas of the Netherlands. In 2001,
two architects from Switzerland received the honor: Jacques Herzog
and Pierre de Meuron. Australian Glenn Murcutt won the prize in
2002. Danish architect Jørn Utzon was chosen in 2003.
The Guggenheim exhibition provides the following
commentary by Mónica Ramírez-Montagut, the museum's
assistant curator of Architecture and Design:
"At the outset of her career, Hadids
architectural practice followed Russian Constructivist ideals
from the early 1920s. Based on floating simple geometries, lines
and planes frozen in time and space, her early architectural representations
presented broken, compound angles with acute interstices that
expressed considerable tension. These early projects were most
commonly represented in large-format paintings. For Hadid, turning
to painting was a necessity. Feeling that traditional methods
of representing architecture were not appropriate for inventing
new ideas, she used painting to research representations of three
dimensions through multiple perspectives. Her reconsideration
of the architectural drawing, through nontraditional floor plans
with spatial configurations open to interpretation, had a major
impact on all areas of design and architecture.
"Since then, she has moved from abstraction
and fragmentation to fluidity and seamless complexity. The first
fractured forms have given place to a system of fluid and undulating
shapes. While the formal treatment of the three-dimensionality
of the Constructivists influenced Hadid as a student, her primary
interest was their utopian program of inserting social condensers
into architecture. These condensers were spaces meant to encourage
social contact. Hadids research has focused on potential
forms that would integrate public space in the dispersed 20th-century
city by creating spaces whose functions are not defined. Hadid
resorts to different strategies in her search for a new texture
for the public space. She has challenged the Cartesian grid and
the single perspective, set forth the potential of fragmentation
and distortion, and developed the notions of fluidity
and artificial landscapes to achieve it. The attack
on the Cartesian grid, the geometric system that organizes shapes
into horizontal and vertical coordinates, has allowed her to explore
territories untapped by architecture. The painting The World (89
Degrees) (1983), for example, presented a distorted horizon, revealing
unexplored intermediate spaces. The relevance of those spaces
is their capacity to become part of a public space aimed at social
and cultural interaction. Challenging gravity and the logic of
the single perspective, Hadids paintings suspend the body
of the viewer in a succession of perspectives. The result is a
multiplicity of viewpoints and an absence of structural and spatial
hierarchy, producing an unfolding of the space that appears to
be fragmented. Fragmentation allows for new interaction between
the architecture and its site. The plans for the Zollhof 3 Media
Park in Düsseldorf (unbuilt, 198993), situated along
a harbor, fragment one continuous structure through a number of
incisions to create different relationships with the water. Through
the fragments of this long building, Hadid created an unorthodox
response to the site and provided different options of public
access to the waterfront.
"Multiple viewpoints also produce distortion,
and Hadid takes advantage of that distortion as an optimistic
tool to adapt the architecture to a site. After experimenting
with this notion in The Peak, Hadid was finally able to materialize
these explorations in the 1994 Vitra Fire Station (Weil am Rhein,
Germany, 199094). She achieved distortion here by stretching
the building alongside the developments central street and
breaking it into different planes that serve as walls. The walls
appear to tilt, move, break, and want to fly away. Constructed
in solid concrete, the Vitra building achieves a sense of transparency
through a multiplicity of views into the interior. The disappearance
of one prominent frontal plane opens up the possibility of mulitple
entries into the building.
"The fluid relation between ground and
building, a constant program in Hadids work, is the dominant
characteristic of the environmental research center and exhibition
space LFOne Landesgardenschau (Weil Am Rhein, 199699). The
building intends to recuperate the way nature establishes territories
that define space by means of overlaps, rhythms, and textures.
The figure of LFOne is not containedit continues into its
surroundings while simultaneously emerging from the paths already
suggested in the landscape. The consolidation of those different
paths also gives way to a lifting of the ground, making it unclear
where the ground floor begins or ends as it curves
up and expands into different terraced spaces. The indefinite
boundaries create fluid spaces that allow for spontaneous social
activities. The blurring of boundaries and the creation of fluid
spaces also inspires the creation of new artificial landscapes.
"As her architecture continues to explore
new possibilities for public space, Hadid incorporates smoother
surfaces, and the built form becomes almost a landscape form.
Her latest work, the Phaeno Science Center (Wolfsburg, Germany,
19992005), rises from the ground with strange undulating
forms that liberate an open space below its belly. This rescued
urban space unifies the elements of its surroundings and produces
a new artificial landscape dominated by funnel-shaped cones. The
strangeness of the landscaped access to the building are also
present in the interior. The Phaenos smoothness, seamlessness,
and distortion is evident in walls that seem to melt, floors that
curve upward, and ceilings that appear to compress, bend, and
expand, creating a sense of constant transformation. Hadids
early fractured forms have given place over her 30-year career
to more fluid and undulating shapes without letting go of her
initial intensity and conviction. Her suggestive buildings with
tilting spaces, exteriors that blend with the interiors, and forms
that project out into their surroundings, have found a way to
incorporate seamlessness and deformation in exciting and moving
ways. For Hadid architecture is not about recognizing and feeling
comfortable in familiar spaces. Her buildings are stages for new
ways of socializing, for the unpredictable to occur."
Once considered unbuildable, her projects can
now be seen around the world, including major projects in Europe,
North America and Asia. Hadid's most recent work incorporates
smooth surfaces where walls seem to melt, floors curving upward,
and ceilings that appear to compress, bend and expand.
The 316-page catalogue of the exhibition features
color illustrations of designs and models, previously unpublished
paintings and photographs of buildings at all stages of construction,
and two previously unpublished interviews with Hadid by Alvin
In his June 2, 2006 review of the exhibition
in The New York Times, architecture critic Nicolai Ouroussoff
describes Ms. Hadid as "architecture's diva, the most precocious
talent in her profession" and he claims that the exhibition
"illuminates her capacity for bridging different worlds:
between traditional perspective drawing and slick computer-generated
imagery, between the era of utopian manifestos and the ambiguous
values of the information age."
After growing up in Baghdad, she bounced, according
to Mr. Ouroussoff, "to Switzerland and Lebanon before settling
in the mid-1970's in London, where she cut her teeth as a student
at the Architectural Association, then a center of experimentation."
"It was there," Mr. Ouroussoff continued, "that
she met Rem Koolhaas, Elia Zenghelis and Bernard Tschumi, architects
who would leap to the forefront of experimental European architecture
in the following decade. Shaped by the
1968 student protests, those architects were groping for a way
to distinguish themselves from their immediate forebears without
sundering their ties to Modernity. Many of them found inspiration
in the utopian forms of the Soviet Constructivists, an attraction
that had the romantic benefit of having been crushed in its infancy
Not all critics have been smitted with Hadid.
In a review of the exhibition posted at Slate.com June 21, 2006,
Witold Rybczynski observes that "The paintingsand there
are manyare cartoonish, like frames from a sci-fi comic
"Despite their presentation and surroundings,"
Mr. Rybcyznski continued, "it's hard to take them seriously
as art, so perhaps they are merely a testimony to the architecture.
The beautifully crafted models, in wood, metal, and glass, have
the self-sufficiency of abstract sculptures, pure undiluted form.
After the exquisite models, mundane reality intrudes: In the photographs
of the actual buildings, the geometrical shapes turn into windows,
with sills, and sashes, and caulking; pristine geometry is interrupted
by metal handrails; the smooth concrete cracks. The impression
is of idealized forms left out in the rain, to paraphrase a remark
of Frank Lloyd Wright's to Philip Johnson....Hadid's taste for
retro fashion was evident in her first project, The Peak, which
is appropriately accorded its own room at the very beginning of
the exhibit. Designed in 1982, The Peak is a hotel on a dramatic
mountainside overlooking Hong Kong. Although the competition-winning
scheme was never built, it brought Hadid international recognition.
In hindsight, it looks pretty tame, a revival of Russian Suprematism
combined with the 1950s googly architecture of Miami Beach, Fla.,
and Wildwood, N.J. Next to the model and drawings of the building
(unlabeled, like everything else in the show, so it's impossible
to understand how the building actually functions) are two examples
of seating designed by the architect in 1985-86. What is striking
is the extent to which the forms of the building and the furniture
are interchangeable....Walter Gropius once said that an architect
should be able to design a city or a teacup. Whatever the merits
of such a dubious claim, even Gropius wouldn't have suggested
that teacups and cities were interchangeable. In Zaha's world,
Mr. Rybcyznski is perhaps
too harsh. Hadid clearly has a fine design talent as evidenced
by her lovely Z-Car prototype produced in 2005 for Kenny Schacter
ROVE, London, shown above, and her "Tea and Coffee Tower"
manufactured in 2003 by Alessi.
One might begin to despair that Hadid might
be just another superb architectural draftsperson, or teapot designer,
but then there are her current building designs, some of which
are...alluring, sinuous and sexy, such as the Hérault Culture
Sport in Montpelier, France that is an on-going project since
More daring is her design for
the Glasgow Museum of Transport, Riverside Project, in Scotland,
that has been on-going since 2004. From its front at ground-level
it appears to have a cardiogram roofline, but from above it appears
to be the bottom of a spectacular, pleated Fortuny dress in the
midst of a Charleston (dance).
The CMA CGM Head Office in
Marseille is a very nice blue-glass tower with sloping sides.
Hadid's most daring and intriguing
design appeared last year as a digital rendering, shown at the
top of this article, of a competition design for a proposed expansion
of the Department of Islamic Art in the Cour Visconti, a neo-Classical
Her submission did not win
the competition. The winning design of a contemporary sail-like
roof made up of small glass disks was submitted by Mario Bellini
and Rudy Ricciotti and in July, 2005 Prince Walid bin Talal of
Saudi Arabia announced he was giving $20 million towards the project's
$67 million construction costs. Completion is scheduled for 2009.
Hadid's proposed building appeared
somewhat like a cardboard milk container that has been squashed
so that its bottom is severely bent back upon itself while its
top is tentatively trying to right itself. Of course, this is
no ordinary milk container but something fitting for a King, or
Queen, of Persepolis, or Mesopotamia. From the mesmerizing renderings,
it would appear to have a metallic facade punctuated by openings
shaped like "arrows," sometimes singly, sometimes in
joined pairs, sometimes dark and slightly recessed, sometimes
protruding and golden.
While I. M. Pei shocked the
world with his glass pyramid entrance to the Louvre, his design
was relatively free-standing and open. Hadid's design, on the
other hand, is tightly surrounded by a Neo-classical courtyard
from which her "emerging" construction appears ready
to bound, and devour Paris and then the world with stylish licks.
Could Hadid have topped Pei?
Pei's pyramid was an enlarged
version of his much smaller cluster of pyramids between the old
National Gallery of Art in Washington and his sensational East
Wing Building. His Louvre pyramid was a shocking modern intrusion.
Immensely controversial, it has, however, worked because it is
a simple, abstract, modern sculpture that clashes with but does
not overwhelm its traditional surroundings.
Hadid's design for a Islamic
Department expansion at the Louvre, on the other hand, promised
to take over all of the courtyard in gargantuan fashion. It was
a wondrous, masterly structure that might well be an unquestioned
masterpiece in a different, larger setting. It is quite an amazing
and arrogant design that is highly original, much more so than
It is proof that Hadid is a
form-maker of immense talent and imagination. The winning design
by Martini and Rosso is a bold, flowing, flying carpet of a structure
but one that is much lower in height than Hadid's design.
In a catalogue essay, "In
the Nature of Design Materials: the Instruments of Zaha Hadid's
Vision," Joseph Giovannini discusses this competition design
and notes that "In a classic Boolean move that produced a
completely hypnotic project, she took two different volumes with
different sections and intersected the two get a third shape whose
adaptive irregularity allowed breathing room for the facades of
one of the Louvre's oldest courtyards, permitting space for light
to penetrate into the lower floors. Hadid wrapped the distorted
shape, rising in the courtyard like an angular emanation, in a
pattern inspired by Islamic geometries. The pattern itself, conforming
to the irregular volume like a dress wrapped on a bias around
a body, stretched differentially across its surface. The surface
distortions resulted from algorithms made along a path from a
small square rotated thirty degrees to a larger square. Only two
computer operations, the Boolean combining of volumes and a distortion
of the pattern in the rotation, created the design, which would
have been impracticably difficult to conceive, draw, and dimension
by hand. The geometries create a hallucinatory effect that fuses
Hadid's underlying desire to 'make it strange' and the computer's
Unfortunately, not all of her
current projects demonstrate the same degree of genius.
Hadid's trio of high-rise towers
known as the Fiera di Milano, an on-going project since 2004,
is much less successful and these three completely dissimilar
towers compete unsuccessfully and look like an abandoned LEGO
In London, she is designing
an Olympic Aquatic Centre that conjures a beached whale, a big
In 2004, she designed an 2012
Olympic Village for New York that consisted of a cluster of golden-colored
bulbous glass waterfront towers that was pretty as a rendering
though perhaps not as an architectural ensemble.
Far more successful than the
aquatic centre design is her proposed Guangzhou Opera House in
China, where she seems to be paying homage of a sort to the Gehry
blockbuster building type by substituting the darkness of her
cape for Gehry's bright titanium. The digital rendering for this
project suggests that it may be rather ominous, yet the broad
plaza with sunken plazas suggest that this might be an exciting
The New Eusko Tram Central
Headquarters and Urban Planning in Durango, Spain, however, is
fabulous, and is the logical "ticker-tape" successor
to her "punch-card" design for the Phaeno project. The
Durango program has been on-going since 2003.
The bottom line?
Hadid's built oeuvre has yet
to live up to her tremendous promise as a designer/artist, but
that promise remains exciting. The most impressive thing about
this exhibition is the extremely impressive, indeed, rather staggering
output of ideas. Some of her small sketches and studies are full
of wonderful ideas and her models are exquisitely tactile.
Translating her rush of concepts
into something walk-throughable and workable remains on-going....