Art/Museums: Making Choices, second part of Millennium exhibition at the Museum of Modern Art

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Making Choices

The Museum of Modern Art

April 30, 2000 to September 26, 2000

Louise Bourgeois, Jackson Pollock and Franz Kline works in one large gallery

Louise Bourgeois sculpture, center, and a Jackson Pollock painting, right

By Michele L. Leight

A heady artistic melange awaits visitors to the Museum of Modern Art’s "Making Choices," the second cycle of the three-part, year-long, "MoMA 2000" Millennium exhibition that had its debut last fall. (See The City Review article on the first part, "ModernStarts.")

"Making Choices" consists of 24 sections and covers the years between 1920 and 1960. The final round of the exhibition series is scheduled to open in the Fall, 2000, focusing on the art and artists of "now," bringing the century to a close.

All three exhibits are thematic rather than chronological, an approach that has also been taken in the opening exhibition of Tate Britain in London (See The City Review article) and its director participated in a recent seminar at MOMA.

Whereas the first exhibition, "ModernStarts," had one large catalogue that reproduced just about everything, "Making Choices" has two large catalogues, but many works in this sprawling show are not reproduced.

Chronology within the exhibitions is thrown to the winds. Everyday objects mingle with the iconic and ground-breaking: Jasper Johns paintings and Mies Van De Rohe furniture, Eugene Atget photographs and film posters, Jackson Pollock paintings and magazine covers, etc.

"The Lady from Shanghai" by Orson Welles

Orson Welles and Rita Haworth in famus mirror scene from his movie "The Lady from Shanghai," 1948

Whereas the "ModernStarts" had many of the museum’s most famous works of art, "Making Choices" has a preponderance of work that is not so famous and a very large proportion of it does not consist of paintings and sculptures, but photographs, movie stills, posters, furniture and the like.

Perhaps because it casts such a wide net and deemphasizes the traditional fine arts to a degree, part of the first floor is devoted to a small selection of highlights from the collection, for those thirsty for a large Matisse or a great Henri de Toulouse-Lautrec.

"A Paper Arch" by Shigeru Ban

"A Paper Arch" in the museum's sculpture garden by Shigeru Ban

Glenn Lowry, Director of the MoMA made an opening speech at a press conference for "Making Choices" in the light drenched third floor atrium hall with characteristic enthusiasm, dwelling with evident pride on the Japanese architect Shigeru Ban’s "A Paper Arch" visible through the glass panels facing the Abby Aldrich Rockefeller Sculpture Garden (April 30-August 1, 2000).

Ban’s "A Paper Arch is made of paper – really. He calls paper "evolved wood" and prefers it for its lightness and because it can be made waterproof, fireproof, is cheaper and can be recycled. The present construction is all those things, weighs 9 tons and arches 87 feet across the Sculpture Garden, forming a grand trellis for stressed out tourists, art lovers and black clad teenagers with spiky haircuts to gaze up at and ponder whilst enjoying a cigarette (the foreigners) or having a quiet read whilst the kids explore the "rock chairs" and the pool. It is grand.

On a humanitarian level and as an architect Shigeru Ban felt responsible for the deaths caused by collapsing buildings in the 1995 Kobe earthquakes in Japan. He began experimenting with paper tubes as building material back in the 80s, which resulted in the post-Kobe paper tube housing for which he became well known. These simple, yet functional homes were inexpensive, waterproof and fireproof and could be built by volunteers; they offered devastated Kobe residents who had lost their homes a chance to rebuild their lives. And you were thinking this was just some old arch, huh? The man is a genius, Lowry was right to feel proud, and the entire construction will be recycled, according to Ban’s wishes, when it comes down August 1, 2000.

For the open-minded this show quickly becomes an adventure in unusual aesthetic and philosophical juxtapositions of photographs, prints, sculptures, furniture and paintings hung together within the same gallery as in "Seeing Double," where Atget, Picasso, Mies Van de Rohe, Sigmar Polke, Richard Estes and Corning Glass share the limelight in an exhibit which explores the "inside-outside" of modern art (Picasso and Cubism) through transparency, multiple-layering (Rauschenberg and Polke) and reflective surfaces (Mies Van der Rohe’s buildings and furniture).

If Shigeru Ban’s arch is the most dramatic and perhaps aesthetically pleasing single object in "Making Choices," Man Ray is probably the artist who comes off best. He was born Emmanuel Rudnitzky in Philadelphia in 1890, and he died 1976 in Paris. His early experiments with photographic abstraction are very impressive as are some great photographs elsewhere in the exhibition of Lászlo Moholy-Nagy (1895-1946).

"Rayograph" by Man Ray

"Rayograph," by Man Ray, gelatin silver print, 9 1/16 by 7 inches, 1922

Man Ray moved to Paris in 1921, was introduced by Marcel Duchamp to the Dadaists, who immediately embraced his radical paintings, assemblages and objects, and he quickly made a name for himself. His experiments in the darkroom resulted in the creation of some of the most innovative photographic images of all time, ("Man Ray, 1931," gelatin silver print [solarized], MoMA) like his famous "Rayographs" which must be seen to be fully appreciated; no adjectives could do them justice.

Photography plays an important part in this show and he is devoted one whole room, and Henri Cartier-Bresson (b. 1908) gets a long wall in a big gallery.

"An Eye at the Museum of Modern Art" by Henri Cartier-Bresson

"An Eye at the Museum of Modern Art" by Henri Cartier-Bresson, 1947

Cartier-Bresson founded Magnum Photos, a photographers’ cooperative, which enabled him to travel the world as a photo-journalist, many of his images ending up in "Life" and other magazines, which were seen by a large number of people and were effective in conveying both the journalistic and artistic aspects of his photographic style: "In whatever picture-story we try to do," he is quoted as saying, "we are bound to arrive as intruders. It is essential, therefore, to approach the subject on tiptoe…A velvet hand, a hawks eye – these we should all have. The profession depends so much upon the relations the photographer establishes with the people he’s photographing, that a false relationship, a wrong word or attitude, can ruin everything."

Cartier-Bresson's "An Eye at the Museum of Modern Art," shown above, graces the cover of one of the museum's three pamphlets at the exhibition and is a startlingly modern photograph.

It is interesting to notice the penetrating studies of great photographers in this exhibition, (for which we must thank Peter Galassi, Chief Curator, Department of Photography), to which must be added the fascinating "Walker Evans and Company," on the second floor, which zeros in on his and eight other photographer’s work in a interactive forum of ideas, artistic aspirations and ultimately the inspiration his work had upon theirs and vice versa. The most illuminating are Eugene Atget’s images, which look like the artistic ancestors of Evans iconic and now legendary poetic style. (See The City Review article on "Walker Evans.") The black and white images are a soothing counterpoint to a cacophony of color and intense composition which might otherwise be in danger of blowing a fuse in the average viewer’s eyes, no matter how artistically devout.

In "The Rhetoric of Persuasion," Ben Shahn’s (1898-1969) goggled "Welders", 1943, painted in tempera on cardboard, is placed beside Lewis Hine’s (1874-1940) famous, but still fresh and awesome photograph of a "Steamfitter," 1920, the muscle-bound workman tightening a bolt on the wheel of a massive steam engine; the workers are small cogs in America’s Industrial workforce, symbols of the solidarity of the masses, one captured by camera and the other in paint. On the opposite wall in this "workers" forum, is Gustav Klucis’ (Latvian, 1895-1944) "ra ra" for the Russian workers propagandist gravure, "Fulfilled Plan Great Work," 1930, which shows a pyramid of smiling workers with palms outstretched, the entire composition brought to a crescendo against a pulsating red background. Alongside this is José Clemente Orozco’s (Mexican, 1883-1949) agonized charcoal and crayon "Clenched Fist," (1948), portraying the worker as the victimized yet indomitable hero.

Continuing within the same exhibit the pace quickens and the passions visibly rise in an international collection of posters, lithographs, photographs and paintings that examine the 30’s, the catastrophic effect of the Great Depression both within America and abroad, the rise of Stalin, Hitler, Franco and Mussolini, the struggle of the Spanish Civil War and the impending doom of World War II. It is a fascinating portrayal of the pressure cooker atmosphere of opposing ideologies, and the power of the visual arts to persuade and garner support for and against vehemently upheld beliefs on both sides - and ultimately the effect this had on the general public.

A chilling poster of a helmeted Nazi, eyes hidden beneath his headgear, by Ludwig Hohlwein (1874-1949) entitled "And You?" applied pressure to "fence-sitting" German citizens prior to World War II to join the Nazi party; the sinister "Join Us Or Else" image is reinforced by the anonymity of the face - the soldiers eyes are concealed from the viewer. Not a wholesome message for a housewife to digest on her way to the grocery store.

The American Ben Shahn’s offset lithograph "This Is Nazi Brutality," (1943) offers the opposite (mercifully) doctrine. Both ideologies were up for grabs and marketed tenaciously by opposing factions at a time when the world did not know what it knows now. The enormous power of images to convert or convince in a world without television or computers, or in most cases even a telephone, is evident in this thought-provoking exhibit, organized by Peter Galassi and Wendy Weitman, Associate Curator, Department of Prints and Illustrated Books.

The imagery of persuasion and competing ideologies took the form of illustrations in magazines, for which most of the photographs in this exhibit were intended, and newspapers and cheap prints, which had the power to reach large numbers of people if they were not exactly of the highest quality. On a gargantuan scale were murals, represented here by Diego Rivera’s beautiful fresco, "Agrarian Leader Zapata," (1931). Emiliano Zapata, one of the leaders of the Mexican Revolution, takes the reigns of a slain soldier’s horse, assuming the mythic pose of time-honored heroes in images of a more traditional, older European Art – he does hold a sword of course, lest anyone should try to oppose him in his mission.

"Migrant Mother" by Dorothea Lange

"Migrant Mohter, Nipoma, California" By Dorothea Lange, 1936

The helpless victims, of which there were many, are captured by some of the greatest documentary photographers of all time; on the domestic front, Dorothea Lange’s (1895-1965) "Plantation Overseer and His Field Hands, Mississippi Delta," 1936, and the famous "Migrant Mother, Nipoma, California," 1936, shown above, are unforgettable images of victimization caused by displacement and its desperate uncertainty. The Italian photographer, Tina Mondotti’s (1896-1942) lens freezes the irony and isolation of a man with feet bound in rags and what is left of his shoes in "Elegance and Poverty." (1928). Behind him looms a billboard advertisement for a black tie rental company. There were the breadlines, captured in Reginald Marsh’s etching (1898-1954) "Breadline- No One Has Starved," (1932) and the lowering of living-standards both at home and abroad.

"Two Barns and a Shadow" by Minor White

"Two Barns and Shadow" by Minor White, 1955

One of the finest photographs in the exhibition is "Two Barns and Shadow" by Minor White (1908-1976), shown above, a very strong image.

The fourth floor offers a respite from this cauldron of government propaganda and oppression with the witty and penetrating "The Marriage of Reason and Squalor," the "outsider-insider" artists in "The Raw and the Cooked" and the entertaining and brilliant "Useless Science"; this is the exhibit to take the kids (or Modern Art skeptics) to see what focused "tinkering" can yield in the hands and minds of genius.

"The Marriage of Reason and Squalor" is a sophisticated exploration in the truth of the "contraries," a wonderful old word which basically translates as "opposites," but often alludes to opposites within the same artwork, literary theme, religion or philosophy. Shakespeare and Chaucer used "contrary" to describe people with split personalities.

Now the exhibit starts to get to the nitty-gritty of what "modern" art is all about, and rather like the "breathing spaces" (actually raw canvas visible between the painted black bands) of Frank Stella’s "The Marriage of Reason and Squalor II," 1959, the viewer feels on more stable ground as the lens becomes more sharply focused and the artists feel like they are more of our own time.

The message, eventually, is just as intense, just more subtly clothed: Two beautiful collages by Kurt Schwitters (British b. Germany 1887-1948) explore the contraries in "Merz," (1940-45) which introduces the message of repression and non-acceptance of differences (censorship), and "Santa Claus" (1922), which brings on the associations with goodness, understanding and acceptance (Christmas). Felix Gonzalez-Torres’s (American b. Cuba), "Untitled" (Supreme Majority), 1991, explores the issues addressing political polls and the conservative majority in his elegant, sharply white, and incredibly harmonious "cones" of paper, and Louise Bourgeois asks in a work: "Has the day invaded the night, or has the night invaded the day?"

Bourgeios work appears often within the diverse displays, like punctuation marks, and her "Quarantania,III," a re-shaped wooden board from an old water tower with corners cut out and brought to her own height, reflects her belief that geometry means stability (reason). (See The City Review "London – The Millenium Projects," for further information on Louise Bourgeois at Tate Modern, Bankside.)

Beach Girl" by Morris Hirshfield

"Beach Girl" by Morris Hirshfield

The "Raw and the Cooked" offers a selection of "outsider" works, or insider depending on your point of view, and a journey into the "primitive" and so-called "untrained" world of Art Brut, in works by Douanier Rousseau, Paul Klee, Jean Michel Basquiat and Jean Dubuffet. But some of these painters were far from naïve or unsophisticated and their work could be extremely orderly, like Morris Hirshfield’s (American born Russia 1872-1946) "Beach Girl," 1937-1939 (The Sidney and Harriet Janis Collection), shown above, or decidedly individualistic and charmingly off-beat as in Louis Elshemus’ (American 1864-1941)"The Demon of the Rocks," (1901) and "Dancing Nymphs," (1914) that offer a welcome dose of visual poetry.

"Actor's Mask" by Paul Klee

"Actor's Mask" by Paul Klee, 1924

Paul Klee’s winsome and humorous "Actor’s Mask," (1924), shown above, with complementary red hair and green face, belies the artist’s serious interest in the art of the insane, which he along with others like the Surrealist Max Ernst, researched in the collection of Dr. Hans Prinzhorn. Klee authored two books, "The Nature of Nature" and "The Thinking Eye," which show his almost scientific interest in the nuts and bolts of the artistic process, with detailed drawings, almost maps, of his own creative process, from idea and sketch to "finished" artwork.

Both Klee and Picasso were master-draughtsmen - they could both draw impeccably in the "academic" sense. Their distortions are deliberate and their imitation of the "primitive’ forms of expression is a constant of modern art. Picasso was close friends with the customs official and Sunday painter Henri Rousseau whose "primitive" technique is painstakingly precise. Picasso drew constantly from "primitive" African Sculpture and remarked at an exhibition of children’s drawings: "When I was their age I could draw like Raphael, but it took me a lifetime to draw like them."

"Useless Science" explores (and parodies) pure research (for its own sake) and applied research (toward a particular end) by examining the work of a group of artists beginning with the Dadaist, Marcel Duchamp, who experimented with the mechanics of optical effects, expecting no specific results. Duchamp ascribed to the pseudo-scientific institution of "Pataphysics," a term devised by the author and playwright Alfred Jarry (1873-1907) as being neither a scientific or artistic theory, a political position or a school of thought, but rather the science of imaginary solutions based on random choice. If that sounds a bit like dabbling in pre-school art class, the results are wonderfully inventive, imaginative and intelligent, with more than a dash of piercing genius – even if they are useless.

Jean Dubuffet, Max Ernst, Man Ray, the Marx Brothers and Joan Miro were amongst other artists, intellectuals, poets and writers who ascribed to this "college" of Pataphysics, dedicated to the discovery of "imaginary solutions." In the fifties and early sixties many European artists adopted the conventions of scientific experimentation, instituting research groups to study the properties of movement, sound and light, forming an unprecedented partnership called Experiments in Art and Technology, or E.A.T., and the composer John Cage adopted "chance" as the opposite of rationality, applying it as rigorously as a scientific principle or procedure.

"Hatching Egg" by Jean Tingueley

"Hatching Egg" by Jean Tingueley (1958)

Jean Tingueley’s (Swiss, 1925-1991) "Hatching Egg," (1958), shown above, is a motor-driven "automaton" constructed with painted metal and ply: its purpose, none whatsoever, but it is wonderful.

Moving wire construction by Paul Bury

Motor-driven construction of plastic-tipped nylon wires in a wood panel by Paul Bury

One of the most amazing "sculptures" in the show is Paul Bury’s (Belgian, 1922) motor driven construction of plastic-tipped nylon wires in a wood panel, which twitches ever so slightly here and there like insects feelers (Philip Johnson Fund), shown above.

"Pulsating Structuralization" by Gianni Colombo

"Pulsating Structuralization" by Gianni Colombo, motor-driven relief construction of 174 plastic foam blocks, 1959

"Pulsating Structuralization,"(1959) by Gianni Colombo (1937-1993), is a motor driven relief construction of 174 plastic foam blocks, shown above, which look like marble, gyrating about in a wood box.(Gift of Olivetti). No, it has no function except to invite inquiry, but it would be such fun to own.

"Rocket" by Paramarenko

"Rocket" by Paramarenko, 1969

Finally, if one must choose from this ultimate selection of grown-up toys, there is Paramarenko’s (Belgian, 1940) flying object, named "Rocket" (1969), shown above, which looks like a cross between a giant insect and something which might possibly fly (except that – you guessed – it can’t), which he designed along with bombs and cars. They are constructed out of balsa wood, paper and rubber, and he claimed they could really function. There is a lot of fun stuff here, made by very intelligent men and MoMA is a repository of objects related directly to the College of "Pataphysics." It would be something if the entire collection was given an airing in roomier surroundings some day.

Willem de Kooning called critics and art historians "bookkeepers," and what he held against them was their need to categorize and "account" for the influences and associations that appear to explain a given artist’s work and its development. (See The City Review article on de Kooning.) Artists are not so neat and tidy and learn from, befriend and have an effect on others whose style may not resemble their own at all. No matter, the historians must assign the artists to movements, tendencies, "-isms" to keep the columns straight and to categorize them.

The sorting out and assigning, which cannot possibly show the regular visits to each others studios or hours spent talking about art in downtown bars, has resulted in the famous and familiar labels Abstract Expressionism or Action Painting, Abstract Impressionism, Color Field, Hard Edge, Painterly Realism, neo-Dada and Pop Art. Robert Storr (Senior Curator, Department of Painting and Sculpture) has "improvised" a "New York Salon," modeled on group shows of the period, which is a reminder of how open and heterogeneous the scene was in the heyday of the New York School.

Untitled work by Lee Krasner

Untitled work by Lee Krassner, 1951

Jackson Pollock’s (1912-1956) "Easter and the Totems,"1953, which is the gift of Lee Krassner in memory of Jackson Pollock echoes Lee Krassner’s own (1911-1984) powerfully elegant "Untitled," 1951, shown above, and gently reminds the viewer of their close partnership in life. Louise Bourgeois’ (American, born France 1911) balsa wood "Sleeping Figure,"(1950), stands totem-like beside Krassner’s washes of blue and magenta stripes on a natural canvas ground; both the artist and the sculptor’s work resonate as creative kindred spirits, with Pollock hollering above them both. How his work spins and tosses and ricochets…and Louise Bourgeois appears again.

This room sings with color, deep and sonorous in Hans Hoffman’s (American, born Germany 1880-1966) "Cathedral,"(1959), sprightly and gay in Joan Mitchell’s (1926-1992) magnified Monet-esque brushstroked "Jumping Ladybug,"(1957) If spirits live on, they are ebulliently present in this beautiful selection of paintings; Mark Rothko’s mystical and mythic (American, born Latvia 1903-1970) "Magenta, Black, Green on Orange," (1949), transcends thoughts of why he committed suicide; it is an alive and vibrant work of art, with such stature, and a fitting place to bid farewell.

De Kooning did not have much patience for critics, chroniclers and historians, so he would have appreciated the "devil may care" attitude to dates and schools as presented in this show; but strangely enough, the recurrent reminders of American artists and sculptors born in other countries, the overlapping dates of many of the artworks, and the universal themes they portray, form a "history" of their own – a hodge-podge history reminiscent of the rough and tumble, imperfect yet beautiful "modern" world which is our own.

If the desire for an historical " picture by picture" story of art persists, brushing up on the chronology in an encyclopedia of art history from the 20s to the 60s will save any disorientation the "multiplicity" of works might induce. For those with some art history background, this was a defining moment in the history of modern art, culminating in the New York School, so named because the "movement" took place right here in numerous New York studios, with a free exchange of ideas amongst the artists. Some of the major players of the "school" include the painters Jackson Pollock, Mark Rothko, Willem de Kooning and Frank Stella and the sculptors Louise Bourgeois and David Smith.

No longer looking to Europe as the be-all and end-all of the artistic world, but still respecting the historical and traditional artistic legacy of European Art, the New York School carved their own path in the American art landscape and created a new and intensely individualistic visual language of their own. This exhibit comes close to showing how many influences were around them at the time, and how much their styles and philosophies interacted with the "European" legacy and within their own diverse painterly styles, like Action Painting (Pollock) or "Color Field (Rothko) that later became known collectively as the New York School.

Untitled by David Smith

Untitled, by David Smith, gouache on paper, 29 3/4 by 42 1/8 inches, 1955, gift of Barbara G. Pine in memory of Morris Goldman

In such a large show, there are bound to be a few surprises and a few shockers. The "War" section is very strong and the anatomy section a bit visceral. One of the great delightful surprises is David Smith's beautiful gouache, shown above, which is more sumptuous than his wonderful steel sculptures (many of which are on view on the great roof terrace of the Metropolitan Museum of Art during the summer of 2000).

"Simultaneous Counter-Composition" by Theo van Doesburg

"Simultaneous Counter-Composition" by Theo van Doesburg, 1929-30, The Sidney and Harriet Janis Collection

One of the strongest works in the exhibition is "Simultaneous Counter-Composition" by Theo van Doesburg (1883-1931), shown above, part of the Sidney and Harriet Janis Collection at the museum.

One of the few sections of the show that is consistently of very high quality is the "Dream of Utopia," which features many great paintings by the Russian Constructivists such as Kazimir Malevich, Eli Lissitzky (1890-1940), Liubov Sergeevna Popova (1889-1924), Aleksandr Rodchenko (1891-1956) and Alexandra Exter (1882-1949). Malevich is represented by several works, perhaps an overreaction by the museum, not inappropriately, to its having "lost" a major Malevich to the artist's heirs (see The City Review article on the major Phillips Auction sale in the spring of 2000 in which the heirs sold the Malevich for more than $17 million.)

"Suprematist Relief-Sculpture" by Ivan Puni

"Suprematist Relief-Sculpture," by Ivan Puni, 1920s reconstruction of 1915 original, The Museum of Modern Art, The Riklis Collection of McCrory Corporation

Another fine Russian work is Ivan Puni's "Suprematist Relief-Sculpture," shown above, a reconstruction in the 1920s of an original executed in 1915.

There are a few familiar works in this show - Andrew Wyeth's "Christina's World," Edwar Hopper's painter of an usher at the Loew's Sheridan movie theater in Greenwich Village, and René Magritte's "The False Mirror," and Jacques Lipchitz's "Figure" sculpture, "The River" by Aristide Maillol (1861-1944), Jean Arp's "Two Heads," Philip Johnson's model of his famous "glass house" in New Canaan, Conn., and, of course, Ludwig Mies van der Rohe's famous stainless steel and leather chair.

"Uprising" by Lyonel Feininger

"Uprising," by Lyonel Feininger

Many very fine works are scattered through the exhibition such as "Pierced Circle" by Theodore J. Roszak (1907-1981), a fine photograph by "Prisoner in a Cell at Wormwood Scrubbs" by Bill Brandt (1904-1983), "Number 3," by Bradley Tomlin Walker (1899-1953), which are illustrated in one of the catalogues, and "The Impossible III" by Maria (Maria Martins)(1910-1973), "Lunar Asparagus" by Max Ernst (1891-1976), a fine strong deep red painting by Arshile Gorky (1904-48), "Uprising 1910" by Lyonel Feininger (1871-1956), shown above, and "Armored Train in Action" by Gino Severini (1883-1960), which are not illustrated in any catalogue of this exhibition and which are among the finest works in the entire show.

One comes away from these 24 exhibits rather dizzy and not terribly enlightened for the quality of the individual sections is very uneven, rather arbitrary and often not very well focused. Perhaps the museum should have devoted this second major part of the three-part series to works they own but have never shown before.

Overall, this is a somewhat frustrating exhibition and many viewers will long for some intense Matisse, or even more Picassos. So what else is new, this is the Museum of Modern Art in New York. If we do not leapfrog old notions here, get a little shocked and learn something new, chances are we never will.

There is nothing wrong with thematic rather than historical or chronological exhibits as long as the quality of the works is high and the juxtapositions are intriguing, surprising and powerful. That is often not the case in this show. Furthermore, while the notion of mixing small movie stills and photographs with huge sculptures and canvases might seem good on paper it often does not work all that well in a gallery, especially one crowded with many works. There are too many exhibits and too much "art" in this second exhibition. Still, how can one not go and find something fabulous from such a collection....


See The City Review article on the expansion plans of the Museum of Modern Art

See The City Review article on "ModernStarts," the first part of this three-part exhibition

See The City Review article on "Open Ends," the third part of this three-part exhibition

See The City Review panoramic QuickTime movie of the garden at the Museum of Modern Art


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